History of 2nd Street, Ogden, Utah

Stories of Bingham's Fort, Lynne, Five Points

Archive for the ‘a. 1869-1900 chronology’ Category

1869-1900 chronology of Lynne Precinct and the Beginning of Five Points

Posted by weberhistory on April 1, 2012

1869 RAILROAD ERA BEGINS

 YESTERDAY: 1876 map shows 2 railroads passing through the area north of Ogden named Lynne. On previous 1855 map this area was called Bingham's Fort. CLICK TO ENLARGE

YESTERDAY: 1876 map shows 2 railroads passing through the area north of Ogden named Lynne.
On previous 1855 map this area was called Bingham’s Fort.

 

 In 1869 the great “hiway” across the continent spread from east and west driving the Golden Spike in Utah Territory on May 10, 1869 and connecting Utah with the rest of America.  Ogden became the greatest railroad center of the Rocky Mountain region.  The railroad track was surveyed to run through Marriottsville, the Lynne Precinct and Harrisville changing the dynamics of these farming communities forever.

Before the railroad arrived William Hutchens had a contract to build one of the local railroad grades that ran through “the meadows”, the area of today’s Business District Ogden.  He  hired local men to work on this grade.

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens; photo c. 1872

His daughter wrote:“Sometimes after school the children use to go down and watch the men work (on the grade), because they were men farmers from the valley and a lot from their own vicinity.  They used horses and scrapers.  They scraped the soil from the sides of the right-of-way and made a high embankment for the track.”

On pay day the workers came to the granary behind the Hutchens’  house and were paid mostly with silver coins (for account of pay day at the granary read 152 West 2nd Street).[48]

TODAY the 1868 granary of William B. Hutchens still stands
at 152 W. 2nd St.; it was used as a pay station for
railroad grade workers.
Wm. Hutchens, 1868 board/adobe house, 152 W. 2nd St.

TODAY: William B. Hutchens house, 152 W. 2ND St.

Silas Horace Tracy of West 12th Street also had a contract to plow and grade the railway bed for two miles west of his farm. His daughter wrote:  
Nancy Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

“This meant a lot of work and the hiring of men and teams, but the pay was very good and compensated for it.  When all was finished and the road bed was all ready for the ties, another large gang of men took over the work and brought big loads of ties to place on the smooth road bed; then the iron rails were to be laid on the wooden ties and fastened down by iron spikes driven into the wooden ties.  Then all was ready for the train to start its way west to meet the train coming east.”[48a]

Silas Tracy used the money he earned by building the grade to construct a new house on his farm for his third wife at 701 W. 12th Street; this location was not far from the tracks that divided the Tracy farm and crossed 12th Street at about 700 West  (This section of the tracks across 12th Street was removed in about 1999).
Photo 2009

TODAY: Tracy house at 701 W. 12th St. was built with railroad money; Marinda Tracy grew up here; photo 2009.

Nancy Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Marinda Tracy

Silas Horace Tracy’s daughter, Marinda, was eight years old when the first train came to Ogden in March 1869.  She remembered that there were  “a fine lot of men, all dressed in uniform …  I will never forget how thrilled everyone was…  How the people cheered them!  Then the bands played, and the celebration was started. .. .there were many fine parades and speeches given by some of the railroad dignitaries who had come from the East to witness the uniting of the East and the West at Promotory Point.” 
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Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Mary E. Hutchens

Mary Hutchens was 12 years old when the Continental Railroad  was finished.  Before the driving of the golden spike there was a celebration when the first train arrived in Ogden in March.  At that time Mary Hutchen’s  family went to town  to see “the cars” (railroad cars) come in. There was wild enthusiasm, shrill whistling of the engines, and shouts rent the air.   The cars passed and the family stood way back from the track for safety.  At the end of the train they saw a negro clinging to the side of the a car by the door; it was the children’s first view of a black person.[49]

 
Nancy Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Following the March celebration in Ogden, the train from the East and the train from the West met at Promontory on May 10th 1869.  Marinda Tracy wrote: “The governor of California stepped off his train to meet the great men from the east.  There were many cheers, whistles were shrieking, and there was lots and lots of noise.  Flags were waving, and the bands played.  Among the hundreds of people gathered there, there were also many Indians. .  all decked out in their gaudy buckskin clothes, ornamented with lovely colored beads and with many colored feathers in their bonnets.  It was a sight not to be forgotten.”[49a]

Andrew J. Russell Collection, the Oakland Museum of California

Andrew J. Russell Collection, the Oakland Museum of California

Indian with watermelon

Note Indian with watermelon. The Chinese were not allowed in the photograph.

WHISKEY AND INDIANS

With the advent of the railroad came two unpleasant things: whiskey and crime.   These factors were emphatically felt by the people of Ogden who lived near the tracks.

Nancy Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Marinda Tracy lived next to the tracks at 701 W. 12th St.; she wrote: “..the Indians were not as peaceful as they had been.  Saloons had been opened in Ogden where unscrupulous men were selling liquor to the Indians, causing them to get quite quarrelsome….  There was a large plot of land near our home on a place called Brooms Bench (West 12th St.) which had tall sage brush growing all over it, making it an ideal place for the Indian camps.  The Indians were always peaceful.  We children would often go over there and give them little presents of bread and sometimes meat.  In return, they would give us all kinds of pretty beads, which we liked to string and wear around our necks.  Most of the Indians were very friendly to us and would come to our home with gifts of berries to trade for bread and salt or anything they could get.

But (after the beginning of the railroad) there were some of [the Indians] who would go uptown on Saturday nights, get whiskey from the saloons and from unscrupulous men who had no respect for the law; then they would go on a rampage, coming down the railroad track as late as midnight, and make the night hideous with their singing and sometimes fighting.  When they finally would get to their camp, they would be under the supervision of their chief ‘Little Soldier,’ as we called him.  Little Soldier was very good to us and liked my brothers very well.

One night, long to be remembered by us, the Indians had, as usual, gone into town.  My mother was up quite late sewing; my sister Mary Ellen and I had gone to bed in another room and were fast asleep.  Mother was about through with her sewing when she heard someone going past the window–someone who knew where the door was.  In those days we did not have locks on our doors, but only latches.  Anyone could lift the latch, and the door would open. 

Before mother could take the candle and reach the door, it was opened, and a big Indian came in.  Mother was a very brave woman–pioneer women had to be–but she admitted later that she was a bit frightened with a drunken Indian before her.  She asked him, ‘What do you want here?’ He said, ‘I want to stay here; I am tired and sleepy.’ 

Little Soldier 1821-1884

Little Soldier 1821-1884

Mother saw that it was no use arguing with him, so she put the candle down and got past him, running to the barn where my brothers and a cousin were sleeping.  She woke them up and told them what had happened, then they went with mother and got another brother who lived nearby.  Two of them went over the camp and got Little Soldier and brought him back to our house.

The Indian was fast asleep under the table, and he had not harmed either my sister or me.  However, getting him awake and out of the house was a very hard thing to do, as he did not want to go; but the Chief was very firm with him, and with the help of my brothers, they got him back to camp. 

That was the last mother ever saw of that Indian.  He was punished by Little Soldier and forbidden to go uptown again.  But mother was really frightened that night and immediately had a lock put on our door, which was better.[49b]

RAILROAD TRAMPS, CRIME AND MURDER

Nancy Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Marinda Tracy (Moyes) 1861-1946

Petty crime from railroad tramps escalated dramatically.  “One could not put a washing out on the lines without having to watch the clothes while they dried, for if you did not watch the clothes, they would surely be stolen.  My aunt had all her clothes, with all the men’s hand-knitted socks, taken off of the fence where they were put to dry.  It was really awful!  But we tried to do the best we could.  That fall, all of our fruit in the orchard was taken by tramps also.” [49c]

If the crimes had ended there, it would have been tolerable, but on April 1, 1869, a murder was committed that shook the foundation of the district.  Marinda Tracy wrote:  “It took place one day in 1869.  It was fast day, the meeting being held on a Thursday morning in a meeting house about one mile from our home (701 W. 12th St.), at 10:00 o’clock in the morning.  All our folks had gone but my Aunt Almira, so I had gone over to stay with her and my step-brothers and sisters.  I was nine years of age, and some of the others were even younger. 

We were all in the house when a man came to the door and walked right into the house.  We recognized him as a man who had been stealing men’s socks and other clothing from the fence a few days before.  He looked all around at everyone, and when he saw that my aunt was there, he left the house.  We were all frightened and mighty glad to see him leave. Well, he went next to a little house about two blocks away over on what we called ‘the Bench’–a lonely spot where a widow lived with her four children, one boy and three girls.  Her name was Helen Butler.  On this morning she had only two children at home with her–the oldest girl and the boy had gone into town for their mother, leaving Ellen, nine years of age, and Ruth, five years of age, home with their mother. 

This man must have been watching the little house and knew that the oldest girl and the boy were away.  On his way to the door, he picked up a hatchet that was in the yard, and when Helen, the mother, met him at the door, he struck her on the side of the head three times before she could do a thing.  As she was knocked to the floor, Ellen and Ruth tried to help their mother, but he turned on them, hitting them with his hatchet, killing Ruth and wounding Ellen very badly. Their screams of terror were heard by my two brothers who were working in a field half a mile away, so they came running to the home with large stakes they had been using to make a fence.

When they got to the house, the man ran out and got away from them.  By this time, we also had heard the screaming, and my aunt and my sister and I arrived at the house just as my brothers were chasing the man over the sage brush to the railraod tracks, where he got away from them. What a sight met us there!  Ellen, the girl just my age, was staggering around the yard, blood all over everything.  My sister and I helped her over to my aunt’s home.  Awful though it was, we got her there.

By this time, fast meeting was over, and our folks were coming home, and the news of the tragedy spread like wild-fire.  Everyone came to the home and men on horseback went looking for the man until they found him hiding in some bushes near the Ogden River.  And this was the end of a very wicked man.  Justice was speedy and sure, and no one asked any questions.

I will finish the story by telling that the mother and the young daughter were taken to my father’s home, where they were cared for my our mothers and kind friends for many months.  The wounds on their heads were very bad, and it took a long time for them to heal.  Helen, the mother, was never strong, and she died a few years later; but the daughter Ellen lived many years after and was married and had two children before she passed away. 

However, we children never forgot what we had witnessed on that awful day.  We were scared to go out at night, and we did not like tramps coming to our house begging for food any more.”[50]

Nancy Jane Gates taught at Lynne School in 1868 about 9 weeks and then quit and enrolled herself in a ladies boarding school in Ogden to further her own education.

Nancy Jane Gates

Nancy Jane Gates tried to write of the shocking murder in her journal on April 1, 1869.  She began in extremely shakey, large handwriting: Today one of the greatest tradgdies ever exhibited on the stage of life was performed in Marristtsville Weber Co.  U.T. by one of the most beastly of all beasts but was in the form of a man he entered the house of Mrs. Butler…” And that was all she could write – – no more words would come forth in her state of shock- – – – she left a large blank space and made no more entries until May 21st.

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STONE’S POND AND TRAMPS

Mary Melling Stone 1855-1941

Mary Melling Stone 1855-1941

The railroad built a bridge north of 2nd Street over a narrow portion of Stone’s Pond (see map below).  In 1872 James Stone built a cabin by this pond, and the Stone family liked living there, waving to the passing trains that would sometimes whistle back.  However, after the Butler murder there was great concern about roving tramps.  Mary Melling Stone gave many a loaf of freshly baked bread to tramps that seemed like gentlemen, but it was not always that way.  Some would steal silverware or tools.

1919 map showing location of Stone’s Pond in upper left corner.
In 1872 James Stone built a cabin by Stone’s Pond; photo 2005.

One day a terrible looking character started from the railroad track for the Stone cabin. Mary saw him coming and took her two children rushing to their boat by the pond.  She cut the boat loose and rowed into the deep water out of his reach.  He came to the house and looked very angry, but he could not get to them.  He stood around for some time and then, in a reluctant manner, went on his way.  Many times he turned and looked back after he started to walk along the track.  Mary felt that their boat had saved them from danger that day.[50a]

LYCEUM FOR MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT 1869

Robert Erwin Baird, 1817-1875

Robert Erwin Baird, 1817-1875

In the fall of 1869 a young men’s Lyceum for Mutual Improvement was organized by Robert E. Baird who presided over it with James Harrop, who acted a vice president, and Brother Lewis Taft, secretary and treasurer.  This society met in the Lynne school house and was formed with the view to bring the young men together for evening reading and general mental culture and to gain an experience in public speaking.[47]

1869 was the year of the retrenchment movement in the whole territory.  President Brigham Young to encouraged all the LDS youth to spend more time in moral, mental and spiritual cultivation, and less upon fashion and the vanities of the world.  The coming of the railroad was bringing worldly entertainment and values to the Mormon Territory.

By the end of the 1860s there were about ten houses and farms on West 2nd Street in the vicinity of today’s Business Depot Ogden, ten houses on each side of the road between Five Points and the present railroad track, and the same number on Main Street (Washington Blvd.).  Most of the houses were log or adobe, and there were two rock houses, one on West 2nd Street and one on Main Street.   There were no houses on the east side of Lynne.  During this decade the people collectively enjoyed good health, prosperity and good crops, but at the end of the decade many changes started to appear with the advent of the railroad.[50b]

remaining TODAY: FIVE HOUSES ON 2ND ST. BUILT IN THE 1860s:

  386 W. 2nd            159 W. 2nd              150 W. 2nd                152 W. 2nd              142 W. 2nd

1870s: GENTILES and MORMONS

 

After the coming of the railroad, there were more goods, new stores, circulation of money, new jobs, and new people.  The extreme frugality of the first twenty years diminished somewhat, and a new sense of abundance arrived.  Farmers could sell milk, cream, fruit, and fresh vegetables down at the depot to passengers and also to the  hotel.[50c]

GENTILE/MORMON DANCES- COOPERATIVES-POLITICS

However, along with this abundance, came conflicts between the Mormons and the gentiles (non Mormons).   The Mormons had already been in the Salt Lake Valley for twenty years, but they were despised for polygamy by the incoming non-Mormons.  The next 20 years were characterized by social, economic, and political conflict between these two groups. Mormon church members were advised not to attend social events hosted by “rough” or “antagonistic”  groups with different moral values.   Mormons held their own dances and gentiles held theirs. The Mormons were concerned about keeping their youth from alcohol and the fashion and vanities of the world.  For the Mormons in the Lynne Precinct, many memorable dances were held in the upstairs room of the Tracy home at 701 West 12th Street.

Mormon dances were held at the Tracy house, 701 W. 12th St.
Moroni Stone, 1850-1924

Moroni Stone, 1850-1924

Moroni Stone was nineteen years old when the railroad arrived.  He was a young Mormon who worked for the railroad and was caught in the personal conflict of loyalty to both groups.  He attended both railroad and Church dances and defended his right to do so. He was excommunicated for not strictly adhering to the counsel of his church leaders. See 226 2nd Street.

Concerning businesses, the gentiles had their stores and the Mormons had theirs.  Price gouging was commonplace as gentiles raised prices on necessary goods for Mormon patrons, and they signed petitions to Congress demanding that statehood for Utah Territory be denied because of polygamy and related Mormon issues.

In response to these problems Mormons organized cooperatives, like Zion’s Cooperative and Mercantile Institution.  ZCMI was organized in 1868; its goal was to offer lower prices than the gentile businesses while promoting church unity.  At Five Points, The Cooperative Mercantile Co. formed, capitol subscribed, and W. T. Read was appointed superintendent and salesman.  Relief Society sisters were encouraged to volunteer their time at the cooperative store. [50d]

As for politics, the Mormons had the People’s Party and the non-Mormons had the Liberal Party.  Candidates for office for the People’s Party were chosen by church officials.  For most Mormons, this was satisfactory, but some were not happy about having their candidates “chosen”.  Moroni Stone, of course, became a member of the Liberal Party.[50e]

Fanny Romrell Ducloux

Fanny Romrell Ducloux

Fanny Romrell Decloux returned from the southern states upon the death of her husband.  When she left in 1860 the community was a small group of farmers who had manned Bingham’s Fort and Indian difficulties, resisted the federal army in Echo Canyon in the Utah War, and were trying to establish homes and farms on a dirt lane.  When she returned in February 1874 to her sister and father’s home at 142 West 2nd Street, there was a railroad running three blocks west of their home, and Five Points was starting to grow beyond an agriculture community into a town with both gentiles and Mormons.[50f]

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UNITED ORDER 1874

Robert Erwin Baird, 1817-1875

Robert Erwin Baird, 1817-1875

In 1874 a branch of the United Order was organized at Lynne as follows: Robert E. Baird president, John Folker vice president, Nathan Porter, secretary.  Thomas Wilson was assistant secretary, Frederick A. Miller, treasurer, Daniel F. Thomas, William B. Hutchens, and Rasmus Christofferson directors.  Daniel F. Thomas was appointed as a director on the central board to represent Lynne. [51]

An interesting enterprise connected with the United Order was the organization of a co-operative farm in 1875. Several of the brethren bought a farm and raised 100 acres of broom corn for the Scoville Broom Factory.  The shares were given according to the amount of labor and cash each member put into it, and the profits were to be received accordingly.  They cultivated, harvested, cured and delivered the brush fiber according to a co-operative participation plan.[52]

Horatio Bardwell Scoville was called by Brigham Young to go east and study the broom manufacturing business.  After two years of study and apprenticeship, he returned to Ogden and set up business at 2441 Grant Ave.  The specially grown broom corn was planted and machinery purchased.  The first Utah factory-made brooms were turned out on Oct. 18, 1875.  The brooms manufactured this year were sold directly to families from 50 cents to $1.30 each.[53]

Scoville Broom Factory;
photo p. 310 Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak.

SILKWORMS

Nancy Naomi Alexander Tracy

Nancy Naomi Alexander Tracy

In 1875 Eliza R. Snow visited the Relief Societies in Ogden and told the sisters to establish home factories.  The sisters of Lynne and Marriott joined the silkworm project and began nurturing silkworms in their homes.  On West 12th Street at Broom’s Bench a large lot was planted in Mulberry trees to grow leaves to feed silkworms.  The trees and worms were imported from Italy and France. Nancy Tracy placed a few worms in an east room of her home at 701 West 12th St., but she soon had thousands of them.

They ate continuously for six weeks and made much noise.  They could strip a branch of leaves in no time.  Then the larvae spun a cocoon; the cocoon was made of a thread of raw silk from 1000 to 3000 feet long. The project did produce silk fabric, but it was not financially profitable and so it was of short duration, but it was regarded as a noble effort of the pioneer people to develop this kind of cloth.[53a]

Mary Melling Stone’s  silkworm cocoon, circa 1880.

FARMING, NEW LAND DEEDS, and NEW BUSINESSES

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick A. Miller was 32 years old when he married Genevra Shaw on 31 Oct. 1870 in the Endowment House in Salt Lake City; she was the daughter of William and Diana Chase Shaw (see Ten Ditches and Mill Creek for contributions of William Shaw). In addition to his farm on the east side of Lynne, Frederick rented another piece of land from his father-in-law; this with his own land kept him very busy at work.

In 1872 he rented still another farm and kept it for two years.  He wrote: “I was hard at work all the time for I realized that if I ever got anything it would be through my own exertion.”

In 1873 he erected a barn 20 x 30 feet.  Material for all kinds of buildings was very high and hard to get.  Miller sold a few cows for lumber and got a carpenter to do the work on the barn. [53b]

Due to the railroad purchasing land, all the land deeds formerly based on the Lemon Survey were changed to the system of the U. S. Government.  Frederick Miller was a citizen who qualified to pre-empt the south east quarter of section 17, as part of his farm was in this quarter section.  He pre-empted this quarter section and gave the others their new deeds to their land when he received his patent from the government.  Similar transactions happened all over Weber County.[53c]

With Ogden becoming the greatest railroad center of the Rocky Mountain region, and with an eye on the expanding economy, Sam Gates established an Adobe Mill on the north side of Bingham’s Lane about three-fourths of a mile from Five Points in 1871.  This location is today’s intersection of 2nd and Century Dr.  The adobe mill  soon evolved into a brickyard (for details see Adobe Mill Way and Brickyard Road).

William Hutchens

William Hutchens

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About the same time William Hutchens established a small saw mill down the lane by the school (today’s Lynne School Lane).  This was the fourth mill in the community.

Sam Gates’s neighbor, William Gillson, left his farm to his son, Edward, and established himself in the trade of plastering in the early 1870s.  In 1865 James Moroni Thomas had built a lime kiln in Ogden Canyon, and the lime produced by the kiln was sold to “white washers” or builders who used it in making plaster.

In about 1868 William Hutchens, William Gillson, and George Pierce plastered the interior walls of their homes and the walls of the new Lynne School. The trend of plastering spread into the construction of  homes and stores in the 1870s.  For a description of plastering the walls of the Hutchens house, read 152 West 2nd St.[54]

Ogden Canyon, lime kiln in lower right corner; photo c. 1900.
Vintage lime plaster remnant over interior adobe walls of
George Pierce house; photo c. 2003.
Historic lime kiln restored in Ogden Canyon in 2008.

Historic lime kiln restored in Ogden Canyon in 2008.

Kiln restored with funds from a r.a.m.p grant and from Weber County Heritage Foundation.

Kiln restored with funds from a r.a.m.p grant and from Weber County Heritage Foundation.

INDIANS

With the coming of the railroad life changed for the Indians who were pushed to the fringes of settlement.  Expanding population began to threaten critical food supplies for the hunters, and rapid development began to turn former Indian campsites into farms and cities.   Now a person could no longer stand on 2nd Street and see nothing but Indian camps and a stage house when looking north to the Hot Springs as one did in the 1860s. And worst of all, saloons sprang up, and hard drink was available.

Attempting to respond to these changes, Little Soldier and his people joined a small Mormon-sponsored farm near Franklin, Idaho in 1874.  Many Indians reported having dreams and visions that instructed them to join the Mormons for religious and practical instruction on farming.  It was here that Little Soldier, his wife and members of his band joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on June 6th.  Little Soldier had given up whiskey and said that he was “determined thenceforward never to touch the poisonous drug any more” – a promise that he faithfully kept.  In 1875 Little Soldier and his wife, Wango-bit-y, traveled to the Endowment House in Salt Lake City where they received their endowment and were married for time and all eternity.[54a]

Little Soldier and one of his 4 wives.

Little Soldier and his band left Frankin and joined other Indians at a farm the Mormons had established for their benefit near Corinne.  The non-Mormon citizens at Corinne viewed the Indians as savage and degraded and didn’t like having an Indian farm near by.  They brought federal troops to drive the Indians off their farms and destroyed their crops in August 1875.

After this terrible deed Little Soldier said: “[We] were making a good farm above Bear River City; and all [we] wanted was to be good Mormons and live in peace.  But Corinne white man send talk all over the country, got soldiers come and drive Indian away; reason: Corinne man no like Mormon, heap like sell soldier whiskey make money. Indian no money. Corinne man no like shake hands.  Now maybe heap soldiers come kill Indian man, woman and pappoose.  Indian no sleep now, no potato, no wheat, no beef; no like Fort Hall Reservation; not good.”[54b]

This incident came to known as the “Corinne Scare”.  After leaving Corinne Little Soldier settled briefly in Tooele County and by 1876 returned to Box Elder County where the Mormons, under George Washington Hill of Mound Fort, began officially homesteading them on lands between the Bear and Malad rivers.  Little Soldier filed on an 80-acre tract.  During the next few years he worked with other Indians and Mormon missionaries in building homestead cabins, fencing and farming the land and digging an irrigation canal.  It would be only about five more years before the aging Little Soldier would return to his home in Ogden.[54c]

JOSEPHITE MISSIONARIES AND DAVID SMITH, 1870

David Hyrum Smith; photo c. 1870 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hyrum_Smith)

David Hyrum Smith; photo c. 1870

In 1870 Josephite missionaries from the States arrived by train in Ogden, and in the course of their proselyting David Smith, one of the sons of Joseph Smith, visited and preached on 2nd Street.  “The appearance of such a person in this locality naturally excited curiosity amongst a great many, owing to the relationship existing between this man and the recognized head and founder of the faith under the direction and inspiration of the Almighty of the masses of the people in Utah Territory.”[55]

The Josephites came in four or five wagons together, and that in itself was unusual, arousing the neighborhood people to come to the roadway and watch the wagons pass.  Brother Robert Baird had three wives and was president of the branch on 2nd Street; he challenged David Smith to a debate in the Lynne schoolhouse, but Mr. Smith declined knowing that Brother Baird would attack the veracity of his mother.

The Josephites continued west down the road and held a meeting in the Slaterville schoolhouse. Few accepted the doctrine of the Josephites, but some Mormons who were dissatisfied with polygamy entered into sympathy with them and later joined them.  In 1872 some who joined themselves with the Josephites left Lynne and returned to the States.[56]

The railroad brought other religious groups to Five Points, and many of these non Mormons came with the intent of converting “Mormon children and adults away from the error of their ways and their current religious practices, particularly plural marriage.“[57]

NEW BRICK LYNNE SCHOOL- LYNNE WARD ON WEST 2ND ST,  1877

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

In 1875 Frederick A. Miller was elected trustee for the Lynne School District.  The other trustees appointed him to superintend the building of a new brick schoolhouse 40 x 24 feet next to the adobe Lynne School.   And so the work began.

Aspen Acres Subdivision 2000

Location of adobe Lynne School and later the brick Lynne School.

The Weber Stake of Zion was reorganized on May 28, 1877, and the  next day, the Lynne branch (or 5th District of the Church) was reorganized as Lynne Ward.  On the 29thof May a meeting was called in the adobe Lynne school house by Apostles F. D. Richards and Erastus Snow and the new presidency of the Weber Stake: D. H. Perry, L. J. Harrop and D. F. Middleton.  They called Daniel F. Thomas to be the bishop of the new Lynne Ward.  William B. Hutchens and Rasmus Christofferson were ordained as counselors, and they went to work and set the new ward in order.[58]

1877 Bishop Daniel F. Thomas

1877 Bishop Daniel F. Thomas

On the 9th of December 1877 the new schoolhouse, a big structure, 24 x 40 feet, was dedicated, prayer offered by counselor S. J. Harrop.   Speeches  congratulated the Saints for their energy and faith manifested by this substantial edifice, it being a credit to them and an evidence of the interest they felt in the education of their children, as well as having a desirable and comfortable house in which to assemble for worship and for general instruction and improvement.   Apostle F. D. Richards, Elders D. H. Perry, C. F. Middleton, F. S. Richards, L. F. Monk, Brother Moench, and David N. Stewart were the speakers.

Lynne School #2 was made of brick, dedicated in Dec 1877.

Lynne School #2 was made of brick, dedicated in Dec 1877.

The new brick Lynne School was erected at a cost of about $2,300, furniture $300, total $2,600. This was the 4th school house and the second one named Lynne; it was located at today’s intersection of 2nd St. and Lynne School Lane, 1/2 mile west of Five Points.

Below is a photo of the brick Lynne School taken about 85 years later after the school was renovated into a home. [58a]

YESTERDAY: West 2nd St. in the 1960s shows the 1877 brick Lynne School, pictured at that time as the rectangular wing of the Reno house; photo c. 1965, courtesy Dawnelle Willey.
The brick Lynne school house was used for 13 years before a larger building was needed.  The school house is on the left; Victor Reno added the wing on the right and changed the school house into his residence in c. 1892. Today this location is the  intersection of 2nd St. and Lynne School Lane; photo c. 1933, courtesy Maxine Brown.
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“BERRY LAND”, SMUIN POND, and LYNNE EAST SIDE SETTLEMENT

George Smuin 1844-1913

George Smuin 1844-1913

Like his neighbors Rasmus Christofferson and F. A. Miller, George Smuin lived on the east side of Lynne near Main Street and also loved farming, but he did something a little different with his farm.  He established a nursery business called the G. Smuin & Co. of Lynne Nurseries which provided trees for individuals and businesses throughout the booming and growing area of Ogden and fresh strawberries and fruit in season.  George had the only hothouse in the north end of the city, and he hired immigrants to help run his business.

G. Smuin & Co. of Lynne Nurseries; photo c. 1880.
G. Smuin & Co. of Lynne Nurseries; photo c. 1880 on Adams Ave between 4th and 5th St.

George’s entrepreneurial spirit expanded the business very quickly.  As George employed immigrants from Scandinavia in his orchards and strawberry fields, they also began to live on the sparsely settled east side of the Lynne community, clustering where others of the same nationality lived so they could share their native language and customs.  In addition to employment, George gave many immigrants lots for their houses between 3rd Street and 5th Street on Adams Ave. or thereabouts.  Rasmus Christofferson was from Denmark, and his language  skills helped many new Danish settlers who worked for George.  In fact Rasmus  made a great effort to help all Scandinavian people who settled in Lynne, and he served for awhile as president of the Scandinavian Society.

There was a small reddish colored adobe house located half-way up the dirt road the that wound up the 7th Street hill.  This was used as a “temporary house”, and many of the immigrant families resided here upon arrival until they could establish a permanent house.

Smuin strawberry fields.

Smuin strawberry fields.

George had 15 acres of fruit orchards and and additional fields of strawberries.  By 1877 the land between 4th and 5th Street on the east side of Adams was called “Berry Land”.  He hired more immigrants that were coming in rapidly at this time to work for him in his berry fields.  His business sold the berries locally and then began shipping the fruit on the railroad up north to Montana and Idaho, and sometimes to Omaha, Nebraska.

In order to ship berries on the railroad George had to pack the car with ice.   At the bottom of the hill on what is now 5th Street, he made an ice pond below the Christofferson Ditch.  In the winter he froze the ice pond to about four feet deep, then cut the ice and packed it in barns with saw dust.  When June came he would pack the ice in railroad cars, put the berries on the ice, and send them to their destination.  During the summer the neighborhood children used the pond for a swimming hole, and it was known as Smuin Pond.[58b]

George Smuin in his wagon called
George Smuin in his wagon called “White Top” used for local deliveries.
The wagon had a white canvas covering on the roof and sides.
If it became too warm inside the wagon, the sides were rolled
up to the top and fastened in place.

SCANDINAVIAN COOPERATIVE

In 1877  several Scadanavian farmers on the east side of Lynne associated themselves together in a company to protect themselves and their farming interest against low prices of grain, it being their intention to hold their produce until the markets demanded it a fair valuation.  Lars Paulsen, John E. Lundstrum and Mr. C. Jensen were elected directors, and Peter L. Sherner, secretary.  They came to be known as the Scandinavian Cooperative Association.[58c]

GARDENER STORE, F. A. MILLER  and  GROWTH  OF FIVE POINTS

Sam Gates died in 1877 at age 73.  About this same time, his daughter, Mary Gates and her husband James Gardener, opened a small store in their home at today’s 156 2nd Street on the west side of Lynne.  James still worked in the Gates Brickyard, and Mary ran the store which stayed open until midnight and became a gathering place for the young men of the area.

TODAY: Entrance to the Gardener Store was the white door pictured above; photo 2011.

TODAY: Entrance to the Gardener Store was the white door
pictured above; photo 2011.

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

In 1877 Frederick A. Miller now had four children and the family was getting very thick in their little log house.  He built a brick house 32 x 18 feet, one and a half stories high, with four large rooms at today’s 528 Washington Boulevard.  Adobe and brick houses were popular in the 1870s and were considered a “step up” from the log cabins.  This made the family very comfortable when they were settled.  Frederick did some of the carpenter work and most of the painting.  He wrote: “My wife was very economical and a great worker and we kept out of debt and we got along very well.”  In 1878 Frederick A. Miller was elected Justice of the Peace, which office he held for the next six years.  [58d]

TODAY: The section in the center is the Frederick Miller house built  
at today’s 527 Washington Blvd. in 1877; the left wing
was added by William and Sarah Browning Redfield
in the 1890s; granary on the right; photo 2006.
John Andrew Lefgren, born 1842 Sweden.

John Andrew Lefgren, born 1842 Sweden.

In the late 1870s the Lefgren family from Sweden and the Petersen family from Denmark arrived in Ogden on the train and made their way to the growing Scandinavian settlement on the east side of Lynne.  By 1879 Five Points was the active business center of Lynne Precinct with new stores in addition to the Cardon’s 1863 carding mill.  The carding mill had expanded to sell other commodities and was now called The Farmer’s Exchange.  W. R. Brown’s store was a well noted business at “the Points”, and George Smuin’s nursery was expanding and providing employment for immigrants.

At the junction of the roads at Five Points there was, besides the roads running north, south, east, and west, also a road leading in a northwesterly direction to Harrisville which made the Five Points which gave name to the locality. During this decade the settlers had good fruit seasons and gathered extensively from their orchards and farms, and the settlement generally enjoyed a time of prosperity.  The local interests of Lynne were represented in the Ogden City Council by Alderman William. B. Hutchens. [59]

                                   TODAY ON 2ND STREET: 5 HOUSES, 2 GRANARIES BUILT IN THE THE 1870s:

Mary Maxham, burnt brick, c. 1871.
Peter Sherner, adobe house/stucco, 1874,
Edward Gillson, burnt brick granary, c. 1875.
Bingham granary, burnt brick, c. 1875.
James Gardner, burnt brick house, c. 1875.
James Stone, burnt brick, c. 1875.
George Pierce, burnt brick house, c. 1878.

214 W. 2nd     .     122 2nd St.         .        150 W.rear          .         317 W. 2nd        .          156 2nd         .          386 W. 2nd      .       140 W. 2nd

1880s: EDMUNDS ACT & NEW ROAD NAMES 

The passage of federal laws, jail terms and fines impacted the practice of polygamy, but the social separation and political conflict between the Mormons and gentiles continued into the 1880s.

EDMUNDS ACT

In 1882 the Edmunds Act, also known as the Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Act of 1882, was passed in the congress of the United States declaring polygamy a felony.  It was designed for the suppression of polygamy in the territories of the United States and was an act of special legislation against the Latter-day Saints.  Many Mormon families suffered from the effects of this bill that continued to widen the gaps between the gentiles and the Mormons.  More than 1,300 men were imprisoned under the terms of this act.[62]

Erastus Bingham died the same year that the Edmunds Bill was passed so he escaped prosecution for polygamy; he died May 1882 in his cabin on the farm. For stories of polygamy on 2nd Street, see 317 W. 2nd Street granary.

In 1888 in the first district Court of Ogden, May 31, 1888, Bishop Daniel F. Thomas was sentenced by Judge Henderson to 3 months in prison in the Utah Penitentiary, to pay a fine of $300 having been convicted of so-called unlawful co-habitation.  The bishop felt very much depressed in spirit over his incarceration and his health became much impaired by his confinements.  He died two years later in July 1890 while working in his field about 4 o’clock in the afternoon.[59a]

IRRIGATION 

For the first thirty years of settlement the irrigation ditches were considered public property, and therefore no one filed water claims. In 1880 the state law changed to treat the ditches as private property.  By the 1880s there were so many ditches and so many farmers using the irrigation water without regulation that problems and conflicts arose all over Weber County as everyone was not receiving what they needed. Water claims began to be filed in 1880, and because of this new law, on June 10, 1880, Lynne Irrigation Co. was formally incorporated with James Taylor President, W. B. Hutchens Vice President and Joseph Harrop Sen., Rasmus Christofferson and Robert C. Miller as Directors.  A tax of twelve and a half cents per share began in 1880 to defray the expense of incorporation.  See Ten Ditches and Mill Creek for more details and First District Court decrees concerning water rights.[59b]

1897 Map of Princpal Ditches from Ogden River

INVENTIONS: MOWER, PHOTOGRAPHY AND TELEPHONE

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick A.  Miller

Frederick A. Miller bought a mower and rake and put up hay for other people, besides doing his own work.  He found that a horse-drawn-machine was a great savings of time.  In 1883 Miller was elected Alderman to the Ogden City Council and represented the interests of Lynne for two years in that position.  He attended council meeting every week and “gained quite an experience in public work”.

Frederick A. Miller also served as Justice of the Peace and James Harrop as constable.  In 1883 the population of Lynne was 399 souls. [60]

Edward Stone

Edward Stone

Ed Stone was a forward thinking farmer on West 2nd Street who also ran a photography business and was interested in the invention of the telephone.  He acquired and rigged up the first telephone in Lynne.  Mr. Taft’s cabin and post office on today’s West 2nd Street was two blocks away from Ed’s cabin on today’s Lynne School Lane, and Ed connected a wire between the two places.  People waited anxiously at the post office to see if it worked – and it did!  All were elated for the new invention of a telephone.[61]

YESTERDAY: Residents of Lynne in 1883 Directory of Ogden City and Weber County compiled by Leo Haefeli and Frank J. Cannon.

FIRST SALOON, FINER HOUSES

In 1884 several new stores were built at Five Points in answer to petitions, and in 1885 a saloon was opened.  Former enterprises of this kind had hitherto failed for the lack of capitol but now since the gentile population was increasing this saloon enterprise became quite a success.[61a]

As Five Points grew, it became fashionable to build new, finer houses on Main Street ( later called Washington Blvd.).  Many nice houses clustered on Main Street in the area of 4th to 6th Street, to name just a few: the Frederick  A. Miller house, George Romrell house, John Cardon house, Joseph Harrop house, and William Redfield house.  George Smuin was nearby on Adams Ave.

Frederick A. Miller house 528 WAshington Blvd. still stands.

Frederick A. Miller  house  at 528 WAshington Blvd. still stands.

George Romrell house on SW corner of Washington Ave. and 4th St; photo courtesy Lee Romrell.

George Romrell house once stood on SW corner of  4th and Washington Blvd; photo courtesy Lee Romrell.

William & Sarah Browning Redfield house once stood on SW corner of 4th and Washington Blvd.

William & Sarah Browning Redfield house once stood on NW corner of 4th and Washington Blvd.

Clyde Redfield practicing in the Redfield home; Mrs Redfield taught music and organized the Redfield Dance Orchestra.

Clyde Redfield practicing in the Redfield home; Mrs Redfield taught music and organized the Redfield Dance Orchestra.

YESTERDAY: Joseph Harrop house on the east side of Washington Blvd. and 200 feet up 4th St. on S. side.

Joseph Harrop house once stood on the east side of Washington Blvd., 200 feet up 4th St. on S. side; photo courtesy Jerry Harrop.

The Cardons in front of their brick house at 507 Washington Blvd.; their 1863 log cabin was replaced with a rock house in 1866 with this brick house in 1887.

The Cardons in front of their brick house at 507 Washington Blvd.; their 1863 log cabin was replaced with a rock house in 1866 and with this brick house in 1887.

George Smuin house on Adams Ave. near 4th and 5th Streets.

George Smuin house on Adams Ave. near 4th and 5th Streets.

These houses and others made this area from 4th to 6th a fine neighborhood in the Five Points area, situated within walking distance to the  business hub at “The Points” and a few blocks from Clark’s Hill, where the children could sled in the winter and swim in the summer.  Only the Miller-Redfield house at 528 Washington Blvd. still stands.

DEATH OF LITTLE SOLDIER

Little Soldier and one of his 4 wives.

Little Soldier and one of his 4 wives.

Some Indians, particularly the chiefs, had several wives; Little Soldier had four.  Toward the end of his life Little Soldier returned “home” to live in a lodge on the bench overlooking Ogden. Mary Elizabeth James remembered Little Soldier coming to her father’s house for breakfast.“He was terribly religious and wouldn’t sit down to eat until he had asked the blessing.  It seemed as if he would pray for hours, asking our Heavenly Father to bless the cattle on the hills and everything else he could think of.  I really was ready to eat when he got through.”[62]

One day early in the spring of 1884 a quarrel between two braves at Little Soldier’s camp on the Ogden bench resulted in gunfire, and “several shots passed through the old chief’s lodge.  Little Soldier was not harmed, but he considered the incident a fatal omen foretelling death to his house.  In the three weeks that followed, he became debilitated and was confined to his lodge.  Death came on April 22, 1884.”[63]

George Washington Hill

George Washington Hill

A multitude of Mormons and Indians combined at the funeral to mourn the loss of  Little Soldier.  Bishop Robert McQuarrie presided over the funeral on the bench in the Shoshone lodge and eulogized the chief.  Community leaders made remarks and a ward choir sang traditional hymns, and then longtime friend George Washington Hill spoke, making brief remarks in English and then speaking in Shoshone native tongue to Little Soldier’s family. One of his four wives survived him, Wango-bit-y, and also 12 children and three grandchildren. A Desert Evening News correspondent penned these words in summary: “He was a peaceful, honest, inoffensive man, a friend to the Mormon people, and was always a welcome guest at the houses of many people in this country. Peace to his ashes.”[63a]

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OLD FORT WALLS TORN DOWN — IMMIGRANTS KEEP COMING on EAST & WEST SIDES 

In 1888 young Fred Pierce, son of George and Jane Romrell Pierce, helped some men tear down the remaining portions of the old Bingham’s Fort walls of stone and dirt that still extended in a three block area on both sides of 2nd Street.  Many Indians continued to camp on 2nd Street in the Bingham Fort meadows and lived by hunting ducks and geese and fishing for carp in Stone’s Pond.  Years later Fred recalled that the Indians camping around 2nd Street in the 1880s were friendly.  He said, “They would come and beg once in a while.. I remember that as a boy I gave one of them a big piece o f cake and he always remembered it and was good to me as long as he lived there.”[64]

On the west side of Lynne the Reno and Bertinoti families were among the new immigrants to Five Points from southern France and Italy.  They bought the Ed Stone and Ed Gillson farms in the late 1880s (See 3 Bertinotis and a Genta and Reno Family) and lived in the houses built by the previous owners.

J. A. Lefgren, born 1842 Sweden.

Lefgren on E. 5th St.

On the east side of Lynne in the 1880s John A. Lefgren from Sweden established a new farm and house on the high bench, located at the top of the hill on today’s 5th Street, and Paul Petersen  from Denmark established a new dairy farm and house on the top of the hill on today’s 3rd St. and Madison.  They were among the first farmers to the bench land, and they had to build new houses and  break the ground.  The only access way  to their houses was on 2nd St. and 7th St.; these were the only roadways that had bridges over the two canals that flowed along the rise to the bench.

Over the next decade the area below the hill from 5th to 7th and from the brow of the hill east towards the foot hills, would develop into fruit orchards, hay fields, sugar beets, potatoes and all kinds of vegetables growing in well tended gardens and farms similar to those already established on the west side.[64a]

Paul Petersen; photo courtesy Cody Nixon.

Petersen on E. 3rd St.

OGDEN CITY ANNEXED LYNNE PRECINCT IN 1889 and CHANGED THE NAMES OF ROADS

In 1889 Ogden City annexed the Lynne Precinct.  There was great enthusiasm at this time for the business center of Ogden to expand to Five Points.  Many business people held rallies at Five Points with the expectation that Ogden businesses would continue to extend northward; land values skyrocketed at Five Points.  Some people questioned which would grow more rapidly, Five Points or the downtown district of Ogden.

Fred J. Kiesel was elected mayor of Ogden in 1889 .  He was the first non-Mormon mayor, and he wanted to modernize Ogden by making it less religious.  To help achieve this goal he changed the names of roads in Ogden on April 5, 1889.

Mayor Kiesel moved the address centering-point from 1st and Main St. in Ogden by the Mormon tabernacle to Weber County’s geographic center point near Five Points, which he hoped would become Ogden’s next business district.  However, the exact location of Weber County’s geographic center was not at the intersection of Five Points;  it was near Five Points in Peter Sherner’s farm at today’s Wall Ave. and potential 1st St.  A surveyor’s spike was driven in the ground at this point, and a spike is still there in the sidewalk today.  In 1889 there were no existing streets at this point to name 1st Street or Wall Ave.  The closest existing street was Bingham Fort Lane, and it was renamed 2nd Street in 1889.  And the numbers continued southward changing the names of streets; the center of Ogden City became 25th Street.

In Ogden City the newly named Wall Ave. ran in front of the railroad depot, and to Mayor Kiesel this was a desirable place to begin the East-West numbering instead of on Main St. by the tabernacle.  The center of Ogden City was now in front of the rail road depot at Wall Ave and 25th Street.

The center of Lynne remained at the intersection of five roads at Five Points (as laid out in the Lemon Survey), but some of the names of the roads were changed.

Mayor Kiesel renamed the North-South streets for presidents of the United States, removing the former names of prominent Mormons. Most of these N-S roads did not yet extend to Five Points.

MAYOR KIESEL’S NEW ROAD PLAN AT FIVE POINTS

LYNNE new road names 1899 (2)FIVE POINTS 1889: The red circle is the geographic center of Weber County. All road names in red are Mayor Kiesel’s new road plan instituted in 1889. The black roads were surveyed on the 1851 Lemon Survey and centered at Five Points at Main St. and Bingham Fort Lane. The black names were given prior to 1889.  The name Main St. was replaced with Washington Ave.and Bingham Fort Lane with 2nd St. But the potential 1st Street, 2nd N., and 3rd N. were never built through the well established farms that were already in place.  Wall Ave. would not be extended to Lynne until 1938.

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Only one block of 1st Street was built on the east side of Five Points between Adams and Jefferson.  Roads like Adams and Jefferson were put in place as the area east of Five Points was young and unstructured compared to the area west of Five Points.

On the west side, roads like Grant and Lincoln never reached 2nd Street because farms were already operating in these locations.  In 1938 Wall Ave. was finally extended to Five Points with the coming of the Utah General Depot.  At that time barns and houses had to be cleared out of the way of the new road.  Nathaniel James Snyder lived at 104 2nd Street in 1938; this is where Wall Ave. was going to cross 2nd.  He moved his house across the fields to 225 W. 7th Street where it still stands in 2014.

The center of Lynne did not move to the surveyed geographic center of Weber County; it remained at the intersection of Five Points with some changes in the names of these roads.  1st Street has never been constructed.

Today when looking for addresses in the Five Points area, it is confusing as the house addresses change in a way that seems meaningless.  For example, house addresses on Wall Ave. change from 110 Wall Ave. to 106 N. Wall Ave. without a 1st Street between them.[65]

SUBDIVISIONS – EAST LYNNE AND LYNNE ADDITION

After Lynne was annexed by Ogden, plans for subdivisions at Five Points were referred to the City engineer as early as  October 1889.  East Lynne and William Lund’s Lynne Addition were located east of Washington Ave. between 2nd Street and 4th Street.  An advertisement in the Ogden Standard on March 16, 1890 read: “Lots 25 x 125 in East Lynne Subdivision, each $200.  EAST LYNNE  is one block from Motor Line, lots are sold on a 10 per cent cash payment and 20 dollars monthly thereafter, and at above prices can’t help but double in value in six month time.”[65a]

East Lynne Subdivision was bordered on the east by the Christofferson Ditch and the Harrisville Canal.
Lynne Addition between Adams and Wilson Avenues.

Today a drive through this area (from 1st St. to 4th St., between Washington and the hill) reveals many quaint houses built from 1890 to about 1910 that are still standing.

STREET CARS

In the early 1880s the first street cars came to Ogden.  They were pulled by little mule teams directed by a mule car driver.  Joseph E. Taylor was one of these drivers.  His route was along Washington Blvd. from 28th Street to Five Points, and later extended as far south as 33rd.  He served the night shift making two shifts a night.  Sometimes he carried as many as 72 passengers at one time, even having some of them on the roof.  To the customers on the roof, he passed his hat and they paid their fares.  The fare was 5 cents, and Mr. Taylor received a salary of $65 per month, which was considered good pay in those days.

Ianthus P. Richards also served as a conductor on Ogden street cars

Ianthus P. Richards of 142 2nd also served as a conductor on Ogden street cars

steam motor named “Little Kate” replaced the mule drawn street car.  In March 1889 she carried her first passenger coaches from Ogden to Five Points, running smoothly along pulling two coaches.  It was estimated that about 500 people rode from Five Points to the Tabernacle and back that day.   The trip from the depot to Five Points was made in much shorter time with the new steam motor than by mule power.

The street car stopping place in Five Points was Shaw’s store on the SW corner of 2nd and Washington Ave. Little Kate was described in the newspaper like this: “The motor is a very compact and conveniently arranged machine.  In appearance it is much like the ordinary street car, with the exception of a pilot on each end of it.  The boiler is entirely under cover, there being a door at each end of the cab to admit the engineer.  The motor weighs eight and one half tons and will be able to draw quite a lengthy train of cars, and also have weight enough to stop the train in a very short distance even when running at a good speed.  One would almost wish he lived out at Five Points in order to ride back and forth behind the speedy motor each day.”[65b]

OGDEN MILITARY ACADEMY

On October 1, 1889, the Ogden Military Academy opened with 70 resident students and 50 cadets, located two blocks north of 2nd Street on Washington Ave.  It was advertised as “a boarding school for boys and men strictly military in character.”  The school charged each cadet a fee of $750 per year to cover his schooling and room and board.  The school had varied academic courses, some taught under the direction of U.S. Army officers.[65c]

YESTERDAY: 1889 Ogden Military Academy; today the site of Ogden-Weber ATC.
The military academy was designated “Academy Heights” on the map, set back from Washington Ave. on the crest of the bench, complimented with the waterway of the Harrisville Canal, just as the setting is today for the Ogden-Weber ATC.

In this decade of the 1880s, as the community was rapidly expanding and changing, many of the old pioneers passed away.

                      TODAY: 2nd STREET HOUSE AND A BISHOP’S STOREHOUSE BUILT IN THE 1880s.

  
Moroni Stone, adobe, 1880.
Bishop’s storehouse, board, c. 1880.

—                  226 2nd St.  ———————–  196 2nd St. rear —————————-

1890s: BOOMING FIVE POINTS

MANIFESTO AND 931 PEOPLE IN CENSUS

In 1890 Mormon church president Wilford Woodruff issued the “Manifesto”, which suggested that plural marriage would cease being a practice of the church.[65d]  With the end of polygamy there was a movement of increased cooperation between the gentiles and the Mormons.  The Mormon People’s party was dissolved, and Mormons were no longer counseled to vote for the church selected candidates of the People’s party.  There was considerable excitement in the latter part of 1891 over the end of the People’s party and division of Mormon church members into party lines of choice.

In 1892 the political agitation reached fever heat in the Lynne Community.  Some of the Mormon brethren were carried away in their zeal over political questions against those of their faith who did not share their political views.   The Democrats were in the majority, but the Liberal and Republicans voted together and won the 1892 election.

In 1892 a special census was taken of the Lynne Community of Ogden showing 931 souls altogether and mostly farmers.  “Of the population 570 (or 107 families) were Mormons and 386 souls (or 78 families) gentiles.  There were 159 boys and 152 girls school age.”  The census shows the continuing distinction between Mormons and gentiles that would carry on for decades even after the polygamy animosity faded.[65e]

Within a few years after the 1892 election the Liberal party was also dissolved.

5TH SCHOOL

In 1890 Ogden City established free schools and thereby doubled student enrollment.  The size of the Lynne School building on West 2nd St. was now inadequate.   In 1891 the Ogden school board abandoned the Lynne School and built the Five Points School on the east side of Lynne at the NW corner of Adams and 3rd Street on land donated by Rasmus Christofferson. The vacated Lynne School was sold in 1892 to Victor Reno for $500, and he converted it into a private residence.

YESTERDAY: Five Points School at intersection of 3rd and Adams cost $16,770.

YESTERDAY: Five Points School at intersection of 3rd and Adams cost $16,770.

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FIVE POINTS SCHOOL AND INDIANS AT LUNCH TIME c. 1895
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Nettie Hermina Shaw was born  July 28, 1887 and lived at 559 Washington Ave.  She attended the Five Points Elementary School.  Her grade school teacher, who was her aunt, was standing at the window of her school, waving to her to hurry so she wouldn’t be late for school. Her home was four blocks from school and she didn’t like to be late.

On one occasion, when arriving home with siblings for lunch, which her mother had prepared in the greenhouse located adjacent to their home, several Indians appeared and asked for food. Her mother went into the house to prepare extra food. While she was gone, the Indian women scooped into their aprons all the food on the table and the table cloth and ran into the street. Her mother didn’t mind, as she never turned anyone away. She thought the gate in front of their house was marked as a place to stop for food. Sometimes the Indians would sit on the floor in the kitchen while she prepared sandwiches for them. They spoke little English. They seemed to roam and eat wherever they could.

Consider the contrast of this lunch time story and Indians with the story thirty years before at the Mill Creek school house in the 1864, Drama Between the Indians and the Children.

CLASS PICTURES AT FIVE POINTS SCHOOL
Arch Clapier with class at the Five Points School; photo c. 1907, courtesy Connie Clapier.

Arch Clapier with class at the Five Points School; photo c. 1907; photo courtesy Connie Clapier.

Five Points School class c. 1914; Thelma Alberta Petersen- center of top row.

Five Points School class c. 1914; Thelma Petersen- center of top row; photo courtesy Cody Nixon.

PRIVATE SCHOOL

In 1894 a private school opened at Five Points.  The New West Educational Society erected a very commodious private schoolhouse at Five Points and claimed to be nonsectarian; it was liberally patronized by gentiles and apostates and a very few Mormon families.[66]

STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

In 1896 the Utah Territorial Reform School took over the Ogden Military Academy. After Utah became a state, the school was officially renamed the Utah State Industrial School.  The school was closed in 1983, and in 1984 the site became the forerunner of today’s Ogden-Weber Applied Technology College.

1896 Utah State Industrial School
Sanborn map of State Industrial School 1906
TODAY: Ogden-Weber Applied Technology College; photo 2012.

5TH MORMON MEETING HOUSE and BISHOP SMUIN

In 1890 the Lynne Ward was no longer allowed to meet in the school.  The ward moved to the Crowley Hall at 37 Harrisville Road, converting the hall into a meeting house. Next to the Crowley Hall was a blacksmith shop and the Congregational Church was across the street.  Today’s location of the Crowley Hall would be the east parking area of  today’s Harmons at 37 Harrisville Road.

           
Lynne Ward Meetinghouse
on Sanborn Fire Insurance
Map 1906 (Crowley Hall).
The Crowley Hall at 37 Harrisville
Road looked like this photo of the Mound Fort ward.

Following the death of Daniel Francis Thomas, George Smuin was made bishop of the Lynne Ward in 1891 with Rasmus Christofferson and Walter Crane as counselors (Walter Crane was a former polygamist).  George and Rasmus lived on the east side of Lynne and Walter lived on the west side.  In this calling they assisted the poor and the needy, and Bishop Smuin  and Brother Christofferson continued as special benefactors to the Scandinavian immigrants settling on the east side.  The Scandinavian people were so appreciative of their help that they surprised George Smuin and Rasmus Christofferson with special gifts in gratitude of their selfless service, trust and friendship.

The Lynne Ward tithing house was located on Walter Crane’s farm, and 50 years later the book of the tithing records was found behind a board in the wall.[67]

Lynne Ward Sunday School c. 1906.

Lynne Ward Sunday School c. 1906: Bishop Smuin is center row 2 with Rasmus Christofferson to the left and Carl Turnquist to the right.

LAND BOOM, NEW BUSINESSES, RAILROAD BRANCH, and STATEHOOD 

The land boom peaked in 1890; prices of land near Five Points had never been so high.  Frederick A. Miller sold his twenty acre farm to T. D. Dee and nine acres of additional land to A. J. Cropay, which was all of his real estate.  He received $15,000 for both places and bought twenty-six acres of land from P. G. Taylor in Harrisville for $2,200. LOL.[67a]

Business at Five Points expanded rapidly in the decade of the 1890s.  Myrtillo Shaw Jr. established the Shaw Mercantile Store at Five Points with his two sons and a nephew, William D. Shaw in about 1890.  The business was located on the SW corner of 2nd St. and Washington Avenue.  The post office was established at the rear of their store, and the street railway service loaded and unloaded passergers in front of their store; a station number was nailed on the store .  After a few years Myrtillo Shaw Jr. sold the successful business to his nephew, William D. Shaw, who built a home on 2ndStreet to the rear of the store.[67b]

Mytillo Shaw Jr., his sons David and Austin, and his nephew William D. Shaw, established Shaw Mercantile on the SW corner of 2nd and Washington Ave.in about 1890.
Interior view of Shaw Mercantile.
The name of the store later changed from Shaw Mercantile to W. D. Shaw Mercantile (location of Pizza Hut 2012).

In 1890 enterprising Colonel Swan of Ogden extended his street railway north from Five Points to the Hot Springs, Ogden’s great bathing resort.  A new grade was built, tracks laid and six new railway cars were purchased for this run.[67c]

There were social and business advantages to Five Points because of the motor line from Ogden.  On August 1, 1890 the following advertisement ran in the Standard: “Social at Five Points This evening the ladies of the Congregational church will give an ice cream and cake festival in the New West school house at Five Points.  The motor will leave here (Ogden) at regular intervals.  All who attend will be cordially welcomed and royally treated”.[67d]

After the completion of the street railway to the Hot Springs, business men at Five Points urged the  development of a railroad branch to their business area from the railroad tracks running a mile west of Five Points.  In 1892 the Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern completed the 1.09-mile Five Points Branch.   Built to serve the agricultural area directly north of the city, the branch left the main line north of Ogden at Five Points Junction, paralleling what is now Second Street on its south side, and went east to Washington Street.  At that point, freight was interchanged with the Ogden & Hot Springs Railroad for movement to and from the agricultural area around North Ogden, north along Washington Street.[68]

Over the years the Short Line engineers passing slowly by the houses on 2nd Street were friendly to the residents, and sometimes threw lifesavers to the children and flairs for the 4th of July.  In season the neighborhood children often threw back pears or apples, and they delighted in putting pennies or hair pins on the rails to be flattened.

By 1894 “there were at Five Points three stores selling merchandise, one drug store, two shoe stores, two tailoring establishments, three blacksmith shops, one butcher shop, one skating rink, several or three saloons and a number of real estate offices, doctors, lawyers, etc.” Cook’s rink at Five Points was one of the county’s popular recreation centers. [69]

On January 4, 1896, the Territory of Utah became a state.

This detail of 1896 Weber County map shows Lynne Community at the time of statehood.

On July 24, 1897, Utah celebrated the 50 year anniversary of the arrival of the pioneers

Rozina Shaw Sherner’s souvenir of the Jubilee in 1897; the celebration extended five days, from July 20th to the 25th.

LYNNE LITERARY AND DEBATING SOCIETY

The first meeting of the Lynne Literary and Debating Society was December 19, 1896, at Five Points in Astills Hall.  Thirty young men were present, and Elmer Johnson was elected the first president.  Their second meeting was ten days later on December 29th.  Recitations, essays, musical performances, and debates were heard.  The question relating to the admission of young ladies was thoroughly discussed, and the motion to admit them did not pass.

Members included George Patterson, Earl Johns, David Jensen, William Hawks, John Stour, Charles Ruistrom, Mr. Witherell, John Hutchens, Chauncey Stone, and David Taylor. Topics of debate in this society over the course of three meetings were: “Invention is more detrimental than beneficial to the laboring class” – Affirmative won, “Pride and ambition has caused more misery than all other causes” – Affirmative won, and “The inventor has done more for the world than the statesman” – Affirmative won.[69a]

SOUTHWELL BUILDING  (LATER CALLED FIVE POINTS DRUG)

In the 1890s J. W. Southwell Jr. had several businesses at Five Points, including a grocery store, a saloon and the famous Southwell building on the SE corner of Washingtonand 2nd Street.  This three story brick building was the tallest building in Ogden at the time it was built!   John M. Whitton, a real estate investor, financed it as he and many others wanted Five Points to become Ogden’s expanded downtown district. Property values at Five Points escalated!

Five Points Drug Store (looking south from the intersection).

The Southwell Building was on corner of 2nd And Washington Ave ; it was 3 stories high, the tallest building in Ogden; horse-drawn wagon in foreground; photo 1890s, courtesy Pearl Stowe.

The top floor comprised Southwell’s hall, a popular ballroom.  Physicians had offices in the floor below. The drug store in the bottom level had a soda fountain with ice cream tables and chairs where customers could relax.  This building and smaller ones south of it were known as the Southwell block.  These were built on land given to Rasmus Christofferson by Brigham Young in 1867, and his son “Rass” Christofferson ran the new drug store.[69b]

                                               Token of J. W. Southwell Jr. Saloon; good for one drink or cigar.
YESTERDAY: Doorway to Five Points Drug was on the corner; Manager DeLirry and Policeman Bob Burk; photo c. 1905.
                                                                               TODAY: Road named for Five Points’ entrepreneur, J. W. Southwell Jr.
.

EXPANDING BUSINESSES AND FLOURISHING FARMS IN THE 1890s

In summary Andrew Jensen wrote in 1893:  “The center of the Lynne Ward is the so called Five Points, three miles north to the court house in Ogden.  At the junction of roads at Five Points there is, besides the roads running north and south and east and west, also a road leading in a northwesterly direction to Harrisville which makes the FivePoints that has given name to the locality.

Five Points of late years has became a projective point for liberals and gentiles to hold rallies with the expectation that if Ogden became a great city it would naturally extend northward, and consequently the land there about Five Points would become even more valuable.  Altogether, the junction of Five Points were a number of business houses are located, with electric cars passing each way every few minutes, give that part of Lynne an air of growing importance.  Most of the inhabitants of the Lynne Ward are farmers and nearly half of them of Scandinavian origin…” 

By the 1890s from the brow of the hill east toward the foothills were orchards, hay fields, wheat fields, sugar beets and potatoes growing on the farms of the Scandinavian immigrants, and more farms and gardens between 5th Street and 7th Street below the hill, irrigated by the Christofferson ditch.  Today at the end of Quinn Street there is a row of tall old pear trees, perhaps a remnant of the old Smuin orchard on top the hill.

On the west side of Five Points there were a number of Italian immigrants who began farming there with the 2nd generation Mormon farmers.  The farms on the west side extended from Five Points to 1200 West.  They were irrigated by the Bingham Fort ditch, the Bertinoti ditch and the Perry ditch.  In 1896, following the lead of George Smuin, Lawrence Sherner planted 35,000 strawberry plants by hand on the Sherner Farm.

The Lynne Ward encompassed both the east and west sides of Five Points; the ward had a teachers quorum, a deacons quorum, a relief society, a sunday school, a YMMIA, YLMIA and a primary association.  There was also a Congregational Church and a Methodist Church at Five Points.[70]

Baby and dog on boardwalk at Five Points

Baby and dog on boardwalk at Five Points

 TODAY: 2ND ST. HOUSES BUILT IN  THE 1890s and the turn-of the century:

Walter Crane, brick, c. 1893.
Randolph Brown, board, 1900.
Lawrence Sherner, brick, 1901.

                                     1

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[47] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.5.

 [48] Railroad map, 1876, http://www.usgennet.org/usa/county/weber/ index1htm; Andrew Jensen,  History of the Lynne Ward, p.6; Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p.60.  
[48a]  Life History of Nancy Marinda Tracy Moyes, p.2.
[49] Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p.56, 60;   Life History of Nancy Marinda Tracy Moyes, p.3.
[49a] Life History of Nancy Marinda Tracy Moyes, p.3.
[49b] Ibid, p. 4,5.
[49c] Ibid.
[50] Ibid, p. 5,6.
[50a] Sarah Stone Crowther, Biography of Mary Ellen Melling Stone, handwritten manuscript, c. 1930, p. 92.
[50b] Fred N. Stone,  A Reminiscent History of the Lynne Ward, manuscript, 1934, p. 1, 2;  Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 4,5.
[50c] Elvera Manful, Pioneer Personal History of Mrs. Mary Elizabeth James Jones, Federal Writers Project, manuscript, 1939, p.4.
[50d] http://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Retrenchment_Association; letter to Anna Keogh from Jay G. Burrup, Church History Specialist, Archivist LDS Church History Library, Sept. 15, 2010; K Dates, Zion’s Cooperative Mercantile Institutuion – Company History, internet; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 5.
[50e] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p. 133-134.
[50f] Deseret Salt, Fanny Mary Ann Romeril, 1928, manuscript.
[51] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.7.
[52]Ibid; Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p.308.
[53] Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p.308.
[53a] History of Weber County Schools, A Social Studies Project of Weber Co. Schools, 3rd grade, 1966, p. 17.
[53b] F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.5.
[53c] Ibid. [54] Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1944, p. 362; 1870 census; Weber County Heritage Foundation, Restoring A Piece of Ogden’s History, brochure.
[54a]Scott R. Christensen, Chief Little Soldier, Pioneer Magazine, winter 1995, p. 18.
[54b] Ibid, p. 19.
[54c] Ibid.  
[55] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.6, 7; photo of D. H. Smith, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hyrum_Smith.
[56] Ibid; Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 48.
[57] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p. 158.
[57a]Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.8.
[58] Ibid.
[58a] Ibid.
[58b] Interview James I. Lefgren, 27 Oct. 2001; Pearl Stowe, Ogden Utah 8th Ward, Lorin Farr Stake 1908-1980, 1985, p.51, 53, 312; Grant Lefgren, A History of the Smuin Family, manuscript, revised 2013.
[58c] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.8.; F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.5.
[58d] F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.7.
[59]  Ibid, p. 6-9; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 1,6; Standard Examiner, Bingham’s Fort, Built to Guard Against Indians, Is Remembered by Subscriber (interview with Fred Pierce), c. 1934.
[59a] James Little,  A Biographical Sketch of William Rufus Rogers Stowell, manuscript, 1893, p. 23, 36; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmunds_Act; April 2012.Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 10. [59b] Lynne Irrigation Co. Minutes 1880-1893, p.1.
[60]  F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p. 7;Leo Haefeli and Frank Cannon, Directory of Ogden City and Weber County 1883, Ogden Herald Publishing Co., p. 76, 172, 208.
[61] Interview with Chauncey Stone by Macel Stone Montgomery, March 27, 1977.
[61a] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 10.
[62] Dorothy Porter, True Pioneer Stories, Standard Examiner, 1947.
[63] Scott R. Christensen, Chief Little Soldier, Pioneer Magazine, winter 1995, p. 19 – photo of Little Soldier and wife from this article.
[63a] Ibid.
[64] Standard Examiner, Bingham’s Fort, Built To Guard Against Indians, Is Remembered By Subscriber, circa 1934.
[64a] Pearl Stowe, Ogden Utah 8th Ward, Lorin Farr Stake, 1908-1980, c. 1985, p.312.
[65] Richard C. Roberts and Richard W. Sadler, A History of Weber County, Utah State Historical Society and  Weber County Commission, 1997, p. 140; Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p. 534; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 1, 10; Standard Examiner, Boom at Five Points, date? circa 1940s; Charles Trentelman, A Geography lesson, a truck plea and a morals lesson, Standard Examiner, Nov. 13, 2012; phone interview with  Doris Snyder, June 25, 1998 and Lena Snyder Imes 1998.
[65a] Ogden Standard, 1889-10-09; Ogden Standard, 1890-03-16.
[65b] Dorothy Porter, Standard Examiner – True Pioneer Stories, interview Joseph E. Taylor, April 10, 1940; Standard Examiner, The  Motor Patronized, 15 March 1889; Standard Examiner, The New Street Car Motor, 6 March 1889; Standard Examiner, Which Is the Station, July 9, 1890.
[65c]  John Sillito and Sarah Langsdon, Images of America Ogden, Arcadia Publishing, 2008, p. 29.
[65d] Richard C. Roberts and Richard W. Sadler, A History of Weber County, p. 140.
[65e] Andrew Jensen, Lynne Ward History, p. 10, 11.
[66] Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p. 534-536; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 12; Lillian L. C. Linton, Biography of Rasmus Erastus Christofferson, manuscript, 1957, p.4; NETTIE HERMINA SHAW DRUMILER  1887-1983, manuscript, p.1.
[67]  Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.12;  Arch D. Clapier (1902-1993) Reminiscent Memories,  Written down by Josee Clapier Fenstermaker Lake and son, manuscript, c. 1970; Grant Lefgren, A History of the Smuin Family, manuscript, revised 2013.
[67a] F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p. 7, 8.
[67b] Elvera Manful, Federal Writers Project, Pioneer Personal History of Myrtillo Shaw Jr., manuscript, revised 3-9-1937;  interview Genevieve Sherner by Anna Keogh, Dec. 9, 2011; Standard Examiner, Which Is the Station, July 9, 1890.
[67c] Standard Examiner, Six Cars of Steele, Aug. 13, 1890.
[67d]Standard Examiner, Social at Five Points, Aug. 1, 1890.
[68] Oregon Short Line and Utah Northern, http://utahrails.net/ogden/ogden-oslun.php.
[69] History of the Ogden 15th Ward, History Library of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, microfilm call # LR 6405 2, p.12; Standard Examiner, Boom at Five Points, c. 1940s; interview Donna Hill Montgomery, Oct. 26, 2012; interview Hazel Anderson Gunnarson, Feb. 22, 2002.
[69a] Lynne Literary and Debating Society, LDS Church History Library, MS 843 1.
[69b] Standard Examiner, A Friend to Ogden, 1893; Standard Examiner, Boom at Five Points, 1940s; Standard Examiner obituary for John William Southwell, Former Ogden Builder Dies, January 1913;  Pearl Stowe, Ogden Utah 8th Ward, Lorin Farr Stake, 1908-1980, 1985, p. 306; Lillian L. Christofferson Linton, Biography of Erastus Rasmus “Rass” Christofferson, manuscript, c. 1957, p. 3.
[70] History of the Ogden 15th Ward, History Library of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, microfilm call # LR 6405 2, p.1; Pearl Stowe, Ogden Utah 8th Ward, Lorin Farr Stake 1908-1980,  p. 312.

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