History of 2nd Street, Ogden, Utah

Stories of Bingham's Fort, Lynne, Five Points

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Posted by weberhistory on April 27, 2012


Due to Indian conflict in central Utah, Brigham Young instructed all settlements on the Wasatch Front to “fort up”. Bingham Fort began construction in 1853; it took 2 years to build the walls of the fort.  The gates were open; the Shoshone often camped in the center of the fort. The pioneer and Shoshone relationship in Weber County was peaceful. Painting by Farrell R. Collett.


2nd Street in Ogden, Utah, once called Bingham Fort Lane, was a pioneer street surveyed in 1851, the beginning of the Five Points settlement. Today a pioneer farm and 12 pioneer homes still stand on 2nd Street west of Washington Blvd.; these are among the oldest houses in Ogden.  

Before and after the settlers came, Shoshoni Indians and other tribes camped in today’s Bingham Fort subdivision by a pond and in today’s BDO area near Mill Creek.  Shoshone Chief Terikee and Little Soldier set a tone of friendliness to the first white settlers in Weber County in 1848.  After the accidental death of Chief Terikee in 1850 there was tension among the Indians and settlers, so Brigham Young sent more settlers from Salt Lake City to the Weber River Precinct to secure the settlement.  With that large wave of settlers, surveyors laid out farming land north of the Ogden River in the Lemon Survey.   In 1853, due to conflict between the Native Americans and settlers in central Utah, Brigham Young ordered the people in the Weber to be cautious and to “fort up”.

YESTERDAY: 1853 fort organized on W. 2nd; Bingham farm in yellow.

The Lemon Survey on 2nd Street with names of the earliest settlers. The 1853 fort is imposed on the map, and the Bingham farm is enhanced in yellow.

 Settlers in the area of  2nd Street built Bingham Fort under the direction of Bishop Erastus Bingham and lived there from 1853 to 1856.  The population of the fort was about 600 people, the largest fort in Weber County.  The Bingham Fort residents petitioned to separate themselves from Ogden City so that they did not have to pay heavy taxes to build Ogden and also build a fort themselves without assistance; the petition failed. Shoshone Indians lived in the fort in the winter of 1854-55 to share food and labor with the settlers.

After the fort disbanded many settlers stayed and claimed farms in the area of the Bingham Fort Settlement.  In 1864 the area was organized as Lynne Precinct.  2nd Street now extended from the mountains to 1200 West and was the heart of the Lynne Precinct with farms on either side extending both north and south as far as today’s North Street and 7th Street (see map below).  The rich soil and abundance of water made Bingham Fort Lane (2nd St.) a choice place for farming and home building. The Native Americans continued to camp on 2nd Street among the settlers’ farms, by Stone’s Pond, and in today’s Business Depot Ogden during the 1850s and the 1860s. In the 1870s the expanding railroad population drove the Native Americans to the fringes of society. Yet many Native Americans continued to camp on W 2nd Street until about 1890.

YESTERDAY: Lynne Precinct 1864.

1864 Lynne Precinct extended from mountains to 1200 W.

B Fort GREEN camping 1850-90_LI

 Native American camping areas in green.

In 1889 Ogden City annexed Lynne Precinct and shortened the western boundary of Lynne Precinct from 1200 West to 800 West, yielding 4 blocks to Slaterville.  The area was now called Five Points.  Mayor Kiesel renamed streets in Ogden in 1889, changing the name of Bingham Fort Lane to 2nd StreetIn the 1890s  Five Points grew so rapidly that some thought it would become the largest business district of Ogden.   

 After annexed by Ogden the west boundary of Lynne was moved 6 blocks west of Five Points. The 7th St. boundary now blended into Ogden.

In 1889 Ogden shortened the W. boundary of Five Points by 6 blocks; map 1896.

2nd Street west of Five Points is the oldest neighborhood in Ogden with a landmark 1850 farm, 1851 irrigation ditches, and pioneer houses from the 1860s to the 1880s still remaining.  

Following is a chronological history of the first twenty years of settlement.  




FIRST WHITE SETTLERS in Five Points area

In 1849* Mr. Rice coming from Nauvoo, Illinois, was the first white settler on West 2nd Street, settling west of where Bingham’s Fort was later built.  Charles Burk of Kirtland, Ohio, was close by, and he was joined in 1850 by his father John Burk.  Charles Burk  came to Utah in 1847 from Nauvoo, Illinois, with Brigham Young in the exodus from America.   Mr. Burk served in Orson Pratt’s advance company that went before Brigham Young to find the route across the mountains into the valley.  By 1849 he was living north of the Ogden River on pristine frontier land with only a dozen or so other families scattered about.

Charles Burk

At first Shoshone Chief Terikee and Little Soldier set a tone of friendliness to the settlers coming to Weber County, but because of an incident in September 1850 in which Chief Terikee and a white man were killed, the Indians became more troublesome and the white man more uneasy.  To help secure the land, President Young sent more emigrants up to Weber and gave Lorin Farr permission to build a fort that was known as North Fort and then Farr’s Fort.  About fifty families located in this fort during the winter of 1850/1851, and all the people in the new fort contributed to the building of Farr’s flour mill. The mill was near Farr’s Fort on the creek running NW out of the Ogden River.  It was a great advantage to Weber and Davis County as the people no longer had to travel forty miles south to Neuff’s Mill to have their wheat ground.  The creek was now named Mill Creek.

TODAY: Sign at 1050 Canyon Road identifies the location of Farr’s Fort.

TODAY: An old mill stone marks the location of Farr’s Mill at Mill Stone Manor, 1175 Canyon Road.

Mayor Lorin Farr seeing that the new immigrants were taking up choice spots of land at their pleasure, thus throwing the country into confusion, engaged a surveyor in 1850 named William Lemon who began surveying the land adjacent to the plat of Ogden City and north of the Ogden River. The survey covered an area approximately six miles square and was titled at the top of the original papers as “Record of Farming Lands”.

Shortly after commencing the work of surveying the Ogden Farming Lands, William Lemon died, and William M. Dame and Jesse W. Fox completed the survey, thereafter to referred to as The Lemon Survey. The survey extended from the Ogden River northward to today’s North Ogden and west of today’s Marriott/Slaterville.

Territorial Road (Washington Blvd.) was the center line of measure for the survey beginning at today’s 17th Street.  The blocks were 1/2 mile wide by 1 mile in length; each block was divided into 16 twenty-acre farms; streets ran potentially every mile north and south and every half mile east and west.  This laid the foundation for the grid for the roads still used today.  After the survey was done, the first deeds for Ogden’s farming lands were granted in 1850.

In 1850 the Rice family left today’s West 2nd Street and moved to today’s North Ogden, and the John Burk family remained on 2nd Street and was soon joined by the large Bingham family.

YESTERDAY: 1850 Lemon Survey of the Farming Lands N. of Ogden River with original land claims.

In 1849 Weber County was organized into the Weber River Ward.  On January 26, 1851, Brigham Young reorganized the Weber River Ward into the Weber Stake of Zion, dividing it into two wards: the North Ward and the South Ward, the Ogden River being the dividing line.  South Ward was Ogden City, and North Ward included all of Ogden’s farming land north of the river, about 6 square miles. Changes were coming rapidly.

Erastus Bingham became the first bishop of the North Ward  with Charles Hubbard and Stephen Perry as counselors and Sanford Bingham as the ward clerk.  The next week, on February 6, 1851, Ogden City was incorporated.  This made it the third incorporated city west of the Missouri River, the first two being San Francisco and Great Salt Lake City.

Erastus Bingham and Lucinda Gates Bingham

Erastus Bingham and Lucinda Gates Bingham

In the spring of 1851 the Binghams left Farr’s Fort took up about six claims on the Lemon Survey on the south side of a dirt lane that later became West 2nd Street, and Bishop Erastus Bingham began to supervise an extension of the Barker Ditch to 2nd Street.  This was the beginning of the Five Points area.  The important job of bringing irrigation water to their farms on 2nd Street was completed by the people in 1852 under the supervision of Isaac Newton Goodale.   Erastus was 54 years old, and this would be his last and final farm (See Bingham/Stone Farm).

At this time 2nd Street  was merely 4th east-west dirt road on the Lemon Survey, but within two years it would be lined with log cabins and known as Bingham Fort Lane, and irrigation ditches would flow on both the south and north sides of the road. It was difficult and challenging to begin to organize and civilize the land from the ground up.  Hardly any of these people had experience making roads and irrigation systems, and they had to do these tasks with relatively few resources.[1]

1851 record of Bingham farming lands, N. of Ogden Survey, p. 15.

TODAY: DUP monument fronts the 1851 Bingham Farm claimed by Erastus Bingham Jr.; the red ghost cabin marks the location of one of the three Bingham cabins on 2nd Street (Ghost cabin was 2011 Eagle Scout project of Nathan Christiansen; it was taken down by wind in 2016).

Isaac Newton Goodale

Isaac Newton Goodale

In September 1852 Isaac Newton Goodale and Henry Gibson were chosen as a trustees to build a school on the north side of Bingham’s Lane one half mile west of today’s Washington Blvd. (today’s location of 2nd St. and Lynne School Lane).  From the end of October to the end of December Goodale recorded efforts to get logs for the schoolhouse, trips to the sawmill, and the making of a door, frames and trusses.  He even worked on the schoolhouse Christmas day and all the rest of the week to complete the new log school on December 31, 1853, just in time for a New Year’s dance celebration.

The Bingham School was located 1/2 mile from Washington Blvd

The Bingham School was completed on the last day of the year  1852.

The dance commenced at 3 o’clock in the afternoon and went to midnight.  The next day Goodale tried to get signers for the subscription school. People who sent their children to school were expected to pay a fee, but it was difficult to collect since money was scarce. [2] Widow Gheen and Amanda Snow Bingham, wife of Willard Bingham, were the first schoolteachers. Slab benches served as seats.  The school was known as the Bingham School.  Within a year of rapid growth the fort became so crowded that a second school commenced in the cabin of Widow Gheen.

TODAY: Bingham Schoolhouse was located in 1853 on the NE corner of today’s Lynne School Lane and 2nd Street; there were few trees in the 1850s, and there was an unobstructed view of Ben Lomond, Mt. Lewis and Mt. Eyrie.


Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

Luman Andros Shurtleff, 1807-1884

Luman Shurtleff of Nauvoo, Illinois, was part of the exodus from America, arriving in today’s Harrisville in November 1851, a new member of North Ward.  He wrote in his history: “We got into the Salt Lake Valley on September 23, 1851, thankful to the God of Heaven that I and my family were in the valley of the Rocky Mountains- – here, where the Prophet Joseph Smith had said thirteen years before (1838) that the Saints would go if the government did not put a stop to the mobbing and the persecution of them.”   He claimed 50 acres north of 2nd Street in today’s Harrisville and later built two cabins in Bingham’s Fort.[3]

Record of Shurtleff farming lands N. of Ogden Survey, p. 19.



On Sunday, July 23, 1853, the citizens of Weber County gave speeches in remembrance of the twenty fourth of July, the day the pioneers entered these valleys.  Luman Shurtliff was called on to assist in this celebration by making a speech and giving a toast.[3a]
Brigham Young

Brigham Young

Brigham Young arrived in Weber County and gave a speech on Sunday the 30th of July 1853.  Because of bloody Indian uprisings in central Utah,  Brigham Young advised the settlers to “fort up” as a precaution and for protection.  There had been no violence in Weber County between the Indians and the settlers, but the Indians caused a great loss to the settlers by theft and fence burning, etc.  After his speech, plans for Mound Fort and Bingham Fort began.  Farr’s Fort was already abandoned at this time.  Bingham Fort was located by a committee that included Isaac Newton Goodale who recorded the following in his journal:

Isaac Newton Goodale

Isaac Newton Goodale, 1815-1890

July 30, 1853-Sunday- We had orders to fort up from B Young

Aug.1,1853- Went over to Ogden City to see about forting up.  We agreed to fort up.  I was chosen one of the committee for locating the fort, which we located this day.

Aug.19,1853-The brethren commenced to move in.

Aug.20, 1853- We commenced to haul in grain.

Aug. 21, 1853-Sunday the 21 we was moving in. At five o’clock we held a meeting on our business concerning herding and other matters.  I was chosen commander of the fort.

YESTERDAY: 1853 fort organized on W. 2nd; Bingham farm in yellow.

YESTERDAY: 1853 fort organized on W. 2nd; Bingham farm in yellow; Indians frequently camped in the center of the fort.

Bingham School house, the three Bingham family cabins, the Goodale cabin and the Gates cabin were included within the boundaries of the new fort.  These three men, along with Luman Shurtliff, provided much of the talent and leadership for the developing fort community. They built the strategic west gate and wall first, locating the west gate by the cabins of  the Bingham, Goodale and Gates.  People began quickly to draw their cabins into the fort for safety.  There were many Indian camps to the west, some to the south and north of the fort, but none to the east.  So the west gate was built first and the east gate last, the east gate being completed two years later in June 1855.

Sketch imposed on drawing of the fort by David S. Tracy who attended school in the fort schoolhouse; west gate is the prominent entrance to the fort; notice “port holes”.

Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

Luman Andros Shurtleff, 1807-1884

Luman Shurtleff wrote: First of August 1853 was elected representative by the electors of Weber County to the legislative assembly of Utah.. On the twentith of August I began to draw wheat into Binghams Fort and stack it there.  Had taken up two lots (he had two wives) on which to build on the next day, 22nd.  I moved in my family and we slept in the open air. The next day we drawed in lumber and built a board shanty and moved into it and drawed wheat and other things most of the week.  On Sunday at meeting Bishop Bingham called on me to speak.  I did and spoke of the order necessary to be observed by all in order to live in peace with each other.  At the close of the meeting Bishop notified the brethern to meet at six o’clock to enter into arrangements for our own defense and safety..

… In the evening we had a hard shower of rain which went through the roof of our shanty and wet us and our things through.  I went to work and drawed Altamira’s house (“a log house hewed inside and out” in Harrisville) and put it up on the third of Sept.(in Binghams fort)  I moved her and family into it, and between that and another house was a space of about six feet.  This I covered over and my wife Melissa and three of my girls, [they] took up their abode therein until we could secure our crops and move the other house.

About the middle of the month I had business to Salt Lake City and when I returned on the 16th I found Altamira, just confined, had a fine daughter, both doing well.  The last day of this month I moved my family into the other house… (“to draw the house” means to put it on skids and pull it with horses from one location to another) [3b]


To provide water for people and animals Isaac Newton Goodale changed the course of the Barker Ditch a little bit so that it ran adjacent to the south wall of the fort; this slight diversion in the course of the ditch clearly identifies today the location of the 1853 south wall of the fort.  Goodale also surveyed a new section of the Barker Ditch next to the north wall of the fort.  Eventually the name of the Barker Ditch changed to the Bingham Fort Ditch; it is still in use today is called the Lower Lynne Ditch.

YESTERDAY: Farms in the blocks of the Lemon Survey surrounded Bingham Fort; each farm was 20 acres.

TODAY, THINGS HAVE SURE CHANGED: Overlay of Bingham’s Fort on current road map of 2nd Street; Bingham Farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004.

Drawing of fort wall by Gordon Q. Gordon Q. Jones, Pioneer Forts in Ogden Utah, 1996, (Sons of Utah Pioneers), p. 6.

 The walls of the fort were made with “mud-wattle” that filled a form built with stakes and woven willows.  The wall was about 12 feet high, 8 feet wide at the rocky base and 3 feet wide at the top, wide enough for a man to walk on.  Thomas Richardson said:

“The walls were made of mud.  We did not have lumber to put up to hold the mud, so we placed upright poles, tapering from about eight feet at the bottom to about three feet at the top.  We set stakes between the poles and wove willows in like a willow fence, then filled the space with mud.We made a ditch nearby to run water down to wet the mud.  When wet, we threw it in with shovels, spades or anything we had.  We built the willow forms as the wall went up.  It was about twelve feet high.” [4]

Isaac Newton Goodale

Isaac Newton Goodale 1815-1890

In September of 1853 while building the fort walls, one of the Goodale’s young sons died.  Another son was born in October, lived 11 days and also died.  Isaac Newton Goodale buried the babies next to each other and wrote in his journal on 14 Oct. 1853:

“..These days are deep affliction to me; why it is so I cannot tell. The rest of the day I stayed round about home.  I feel that all is right.  The Lord gives and the Lord takes away.  He shall be praised for all His goodness to me.”[5] .


Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

Luman Andros Shurtleff, 1807-1884

In October of 1853 Luman Shurtleff and his wife Melissa attended conference in Salt Lake City and “had much first rate instruction, enjoyed ourselves as well and returned home on the tenth and found all well.  The next Sunday at meeting I was called on to preach and spoke of the necessity of refraining from using profane and unnecessary language and other evils.  After meeting I rebaptised a man and his wife and reconfirmed them and preached in the evening.  The next Sunday I preached at North Ogden and instructed the people to move into the fort and honor their president by coming to meeting and obeying his council in all things.”

YESTERDAY: Detail of 1855 map from the Records of the War Department shows Bingham Fort located north of Ogden City; “Weeber Utes” was another name for Shoshoni Indians who camped along Weber River.

In the 1850s there were six pioneer forts in Ogden and twenty-one forts on the Wasatch Front.  Bingham Fort was distinguished from all the other forts by its very large population, between 500 and 600 settlers, sufficient to make their own settlement and appear on maps for many years.

The people at Bingham Fort enjoyed their new community, and in the fall of 1853 the residents urged Luman Shurtleff to present a petition to separate Bingham Fort from the Ogden City charter as they were not satisfied to pay heavy taxes to build Ogden City and also build the fort themselves without assistance. Mr. Shurtleff wrote:

Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

“… This fort was in the limits of Ogden City and most the land surrounding the fort was farming land, and as we thought a much better place for a city than Ogden City, and as our farms were nearby, we felt anxious to build up that place.  There was plenty of gravelly dry land for a city and surrounded with meadow pasture and plow land…. .. After we had been in session a few days I gave notice that I should present a petition before this honorable body praying for the lessening of the charter of Ogden City to two miles square on the next Monday morning.  When the day came I presented the petition which was read and laid on the table to come up in its order.  It came up in due time, but was lost… We then presented a petition from the citizens of Box Elder and Willow Creek to divide Weber County at the warms springs near the point of the mountain.  On this we had a hard struggle, but lost by a small number of votes.  On the day before Christmas we adjourned until the second day in January [1854]. 

.. On arriving at Bingham Fort I found all well and glad to see me, and I was glad to learn that they were getting along well as I found them. . . I had a good time through [Christmas] holidays.  Attended two parties [dances] with my wives and family at which I presided..   .”[6]


Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

By 1854 the fort expanded to the east  to an area of 60 x 120 rods because of the increasing numbers of people arriving at the fort.  In February 1854 Frederick A. Miller of New York, age 16, arrived at the fort from Salt Lake City.  His mother was a widow, and Frederick had cut wood and built fires to pay his tuition at school in Salt Lake, in addition to working all summer.  He was looking for work in Weber County, and Luman Shurtliff hired him in the summers of 1854 and 1855 for ten dollars per month.  Frederick  tended  his farm and herded, and after working for two summers he was disappointed to not get the cash but received instead a pair of three-year old steers.[7] .

Wilford Woodruff

Wilford Woodruff

In December 1854 Wilford Woodruff visited and preached to the people.  He reported to the Deseret News that the fort contained 732 inhabitants who had raised an excellent crop that season (Deseret News 4:157).




Little Soldier 1821-1884

Little Soldier 1821-1884

The Shoshoni Indians (also known as “Weber Utes”), were now led by Chief Little Soldier and were amiable to the settlers but were usually short of food.    Because the white man had taken their land, the Indians felt that they had a right to help themselves to the white man’s food and animals.  The settlers tried to keep the peace, readily acknowledged that the land belonged to the Indians first and did not try to stop the Indians from camping near by along Mill Creek and in the meadows and pastures of their farms.  However, even after the forts were built in Weber County, the problems with petty theft, killing cattle, stealing produce and burning fences continued.

In September 1854 Brigham Young came to visit the Indians in Weber County.  He distributed presents and urged them to settle down like the white man and cultivate the land so they could have something to eat and feed their families in a self sufficient way.  The Indians seemed to feel good about the meeting. But after Governor Young returned to Salt Lake City, the Indians refused to be instructed by the white man and being short of food, they continued to act like beggars and parasites.  It would be 20 more years before Little Soldier and the Shoshoni Indians would desire to become farmers.

David Moore 1819-1901

David Moore 1819-1901

There were more indications of pending trouble with with the Indians, and in November an order came from Salt Lake City to Major David Moore to disarm Chief Little Soldier and  his band and to distribute them among the families in Weber County where they were best able to feed and clothe them for the winter. In Ogden Major Moore and James S. Brown asked the Indians to disarm and to pitch their tents with the white men and share the chores and food.   After much negotiating the Indians reluctantly complied.  James S. Brown went through the crowd of Indians and took every weapon with his own hands.  An Indian who disliked the idea leaped on a horse and galloped to an Indian camp in the center of  Bingham Fort.  Jame S. Brown followed him quickly.  Just as the Indian boy reached the camp, Brown entered the east gate shouting to the people:

James S. Brown

James S. Brown

“To arms! To arms! Turn out every man, and help disarm the Indians!”  Men turned out quickly and surrounded the camp. Brown continued: “I succeeded in reaching the west gate just in time to wheel and grab a big Ute’s gun as he was trying to pass me.  He held to it firmly, and [we] both struggled with a death-like grip.  We looked each other squarely in the eyes, with a determined expression.  At last his eyes dropped, and his gun was in my possession.  He was full of wrath and a desire for vengence.  I found him to be one of the strongest men I had ever grappled with anywhere.

I next turned to the camp and disarmed all the Indians in it, placed their weapons under guard and sent them to Ogden, then vainly tried to talk the red men into reconciliation…  Major David Moore and James S. Brown tried to pacify the Indians, but they were stubborn and sullen.  At last the chief’s brother said,

“Here are my wife, my children, my horses and everything that I have.  Take it all and keep it, only give me back my gun and let me go free.  I will cast all the rest away.  There is my child,” pointing to a three year old, “take it.”…

This spirit was but a reflex of that which animated the whole band; “for,” said they, “we are only squaws now.  We cannot hunt or defend our families.  We are not anybody now.”  But finally, though very sullenly, they went home with the whites and pitched their tents in the back yards.  To us it did seem hard to have them feel so bad, but they had no means of support for the winter, and citizens could not afford to have their stock killed and their fences burned, and it was the better policy to feed the Indians and have them under control.  They could husk corn, chop wood, help do the chores, and be more comfortable than if left to roam; but for all that, they were deprived of that liberty to which they and their fathers before them had been accustomed; therefore they felt it most keenly.  As I was the only white man who could talk much with them, I was kept pretty busy laboring with them.

In the evening of December 3rd the Indians had a letter from Governor Young.  I read and interpreted it to them.  Then for the first time they seemed reconciled to their situation.  Their chief  (Little Soldier) was filled with the spirit of approval of the course that had been taken with them, and he preached it long and strong.  After that, the Indians and the citizens got along very well together, and I continued teaching and preaching to the former.”

George Washington Hill

George Washington Hill

December 5th I took up school and taught the Indian language, or rather the Shoshone dialect.  I had about thirty male adults attending.  Brother George W. Hill, who afterwards became the noted Shoshone interpreter in Weber County, was one of them.[8]


The winter passed and the Indians worked successfully with the settlers to earn their food and clothes.  James S. Brown continued teaching the whites and preaching to the Indians until spring.  When the spring of 1855 arrived, the Shoshones were given back their arms, and they bolted out of Bingham Fort, very glad to have their guns and resume hunting. 

George Washington Hill and native Americans



Keziah V. B. Rollins Burk

Widow Burk

John Burk, one of the first settlers on 2nd Street, died in June 1853 and was described by Isaac Newton Goodale as “a good man beloved by all”.  After his death his wife, Keziah Van Benthuysen Rollins, was known as Widow Burk and was recorded as such on the 1919 Vincy Barker map of Bingham’s Fort (scroll down to BARKER MAP below).  

In August 1853 Isaac Newton Goodale worked for Widow Burk cutting her wheat.  

In December 1853 he moved Sister Burk’s cabin into the fort and located it east of the three Bingham family cabins.

A year later, in December 1854, while living in the fort amid Indian problems and treaties, Isaac Newton Goodale wrote that he “went to the marrying of Edwin Bingham” to Phobe Burk, daughter of John and Keziah Van Benthuysen Rollins Burk. Widow Burk was looked after and cared for by Edwin Bingham for the rest of her life. She is also remembered as the mother of Elizabeth and Caroline Rollins who rescued pages of the Book of Commandments in 1833 when the mob destroyed William W. Phelps printing press in Missouri[8a].



In 1854 Luman Shurtleff and others began taking lessons in the Bingham schoolhouse to learn the Deseret alphabet which Brigham Young promoted for cultural exclusiveness and also as an easy phonetic way for non-English speaking converts and unlettered folk to learn to write English.  It was a phonetic alphabet based on a form of European shorthand.

Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

Luman A. Shurtleff

Shurtleff wrote: “About this time a man came into our fort and took up a school in which the Deseret alphabet was taught.  I attended and learned so far that I could partially read and write after that order.. To practice [it] I kept my journal in that alphabet about five months beginning August 13, 1854.  The practice of it died away and like others I stopped writing it and have forgotten all about it and cannot read a word of it and have lost five months of my journal.”  

The experiment with the Deseret alphabet was not formally abandoned until 1869.[9]




In 1855 when the trouble with the Indians had subsided, the church leaders from Salt Lake City began to urge the large number of people in Bingham’s Fort to move into Ogden to build it up as the center of Weber County.  Bingham Fort had become quite a town and was substantially larger than Ogden Fort.  It was Brigham Young’s intention for Ogden to become the center of Weber County.  Luman Shurtleff recorded his lively conversation with Heber C. Kimball about moving to Ogden:

Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

Luman Andros Shurtliff, 1807-1884

“Brother Heber C. Kimball was quite talkative and asked me where I lived and I told him in Bingham’s Fort.  He said What are you doing there?  What office do you hold in Weber County? Are you not a president over all the Seventies in Weber County?  

I told him I was then he said, Why are you living in Bingham’s Fort?  Why don’t you live in Ogden City?  You know you have no business to live in Bingham’s Fort.  

I told him I did not know but I might as well live in the fort as any other place.  

No said he.  You know better.  Ogden City must be built up and you must move there.  You go home, call the Seventies together and scold them until they will sell out and move into Ogden City.  This is but a small part of what he said concerning moving into Ogden…”

On the 11th of June 1855 Luman Shurtleff was appointed prosecuting attorney for Weber County.  The next day Brigham Young and company came back from the north and held a meeting in Bingham’s Fort and urged the large number of people there to move to Ogden City.[10]

At that time many were eager to finish building the fort instead of leaving it.  After almost two years of construction, the fort walls were almost completed.  Isaac Newton Goodale recorded working on the completion of the east gates for the first twenty days of June, and on June 20th the settlers “raised the gates” and completed the structure of Bingham’s Fort.  

Gwendolyn W. Shaw wrote that the fort had grown very rapidly and a great many people had gathered there until the place had become quite a town.[11]

Brigham Young

Brigham Young

On June 24th the people attended a special conference in Ogden City  where Brigham Young again advised the people to “break up” the Bingham’s Fort settlement and move to Ogden.  President Young said he considered that Bingham’s Fort was not a good site for a large city and logically never would be.  He also stated that if the settlement continued to grow as fast as it had done, it would soon be a large city and that it was his plan to build Ogden first.  Isaac Newton Goodale recorded succinctly: “President Young preached. Our Fort was commanded to move into Ogden City.”[12]

In the summer of that year many people moved out of Bingham’s Fort, many remained, and some new people continued coming.  Luman Shurliff was among those that remained.  Erastus Bingham took up a lot in Ogden, but retained his farm and a second home on 2nd Street where he later retired.  Isaac Newton Goodale also took up a lot in Ogden.  

Concerning church affairs, a  presiding elder, Thomas Richardson, was left in charge in the fort district under the direction of traveling Bishop Bingham.[13]

Isaac Newton Goodale

Isaac Newton Goodale 1815-1890

As people began taking up lots in Ogden City there was a heavy demand for water to maintain livestock and gardens, and there was no water on the Ogden bench.  This was a stark contrast to Bingham’s Fort that had irrigation ditches on both sides of 2nd Street and was sprinkled with many natural springs.  In September of 1855 Brigham Young appointed Isaac Newton Goodale to construct the Ogden Bench Canal. If the people were going to build up Ogden, it was essential to have a canal on the bench. Taking water from the mouth of Ogden Canyon uphill to the bench was no small engineering feat.  When it was finished it was considered  a miracle in construction, ran two miles and cost $22,000.

“At first this canal traversed only a part of the Ogden City Bench area as that was all that was well inhabited.  Later it was run the entire length of the city and served the people who planted gardens in their lots.  It is said the engineering work ….. was so accurate that there was but a five foot fall between the head of the canal and its termination…”( For details see Goodale Drive, Isaac Newton Court). [14]



William Ruffus Rogers Stowell, WRR for short (1822-1901)

William Ruffus Rogers Stowell, WRR for short (1822-1901)

W. R. R. Stowell of New York arrived in Bingham’s Fort in June 1855 where he had many friends and relatives.  He considered his residence there as temporary and took a town lot in Ogden to improve as he had opportunity.  He also filed claim for 40 acres in Slaterville.  In October of 1855 Brother Stowell married a third wife, Sophronia Kelly of Bingham’s Fort, driving to Salt Lake City for the marriage to be performed by Brigham Young. [15]

In the fall of 1855 Chauncy W. West arrived in the Bingham’s Fort settlement having returned from a mission to India.  In November he was appointed “presiding bishop of Weber County”, and in the spring he moved to Ogden.  The collection and management of the tithing of all of the wards of Weber County was consolidated in one office, and the Presiding Bishop was in charge of receiving and distributing it where it was needed.  Before the building of regular mercantile stores, the tithing office was the only means of exchange of commodities. [16]  

Pleasant Green Taylor left on a mission to Fort Lemhi in Idaho, and Frederick. A. Miller tended his farm in the winter of 1855-56.  He stayed at Little Mountain near the lake shore herding cattle for Taylor, but most of the cattle starved to death during this season that came to be known as the Hard Winter. Miller, age 17, noted that “provisions and clothing of all kinds was very scarce, and I had very few clothes to wear and not much to eat.”[17]

1855 also became the memorable year in Weber County in which great swarms of crickets and grasshoppers settled on the crops in the summer and hardly anything was raised for men or beasts.  Brother Stowell, on account of the lateness of the season when he arrived at Bingham’s Fort, did not attempt to farm but assisted others with their small harvests and cut considerable wild hay to feed his animal in the coming winter.  Snow fell early from one to two feet deep and the winter continued severely cold until the 21st of March, when the winter so moderated as to bring on a rapid thaw.  This produced so much water that the country might be said to “be afloat”.[18]

The snow of 1855-56 was too deep for the cattle to find grass on the range.  The limited amount of hay on hand was soon exhausted.   Oxen, cows, horses and wolves died of starvation or other ailments.  There were several mercantile houses in the fort that began trading in the hides of the dead animals.  Charles Middleton estimated that enough cattle perished that winter to stretch from Ogden to the Great Salt Lake, could they have been laid end to end.[19]

In the autumn of 1855 W. R. R. Stowell had 19 head of animal and by spring of 1856 he had only 6.  With these calamities the people in Bingham’s Fort were much reduced in circumstances.  For want of animals to haul wood, the inhabitants of the fort were under the necessity of carry small willows which grew near the settlement to replenish their fires.  These willows afforded but little warmth and the people suffered much discomfort during the long and severe winter.

Very discouraging circumstances followed this Hard Winter, a scarcity of food and loss of stock animals.  Many people survived the following spring and summer by digging segos and pigweeds and eating bran bread to keep their bodies and souls together until the next harvest. The privations were borne with fortitude and patient resignation, the people dividing equally any and all provisions which happened to exist among them.[20]

By 1855 and 56 the fort was a gathering place instead of a fort for protection.  Families continued to come to the fort, such as the family of the newly widowed Marie Goudin Stalle (Staley), who arrived from Italy in the fall of 1856, and built a crude dugout in which to spend the winter while deciding where to live[21].



In 1919 Vincy R. Barker recorded a map of the fort inhabitants from the memory of William Grow.  The residents that Grow remembered were those who lived there many years in cabins for at least three years or longer.  There were many additional people who lived in the fort for shorter lengths of time that are not recorded on this map.  The log cabins on the south side of the fort were located where today’s curving sidewalk meanders on the south side of West 2nd Street. The south wall of the fort was aligned with today’s south branch of the Lynne Ditch. [21a].

1919 memory map of Bingham Fort residents

The Sam Gates cabin remained in the same location after the fort disbanded, on the north side of 2nd Street across from the Bingham cabins. The Gates family lived here till the 1890s.  See map above.

The Bingham cabin was moved by Sons of Utah Pioneers in c. 1955.

One Bingham cabin remained on site at 317 W. 2nd St.until 1955 when it was moved by the Sons of Utah Pioneers; cabin pictured above on truck bed in preparation for move; it is now located in Pioneer Village, Lagoon, Farmington, Utah.


Sam Gates built a molasses mill located near today’s intersection of 2nd  St. and Wall Ave.   Beets and cornstalks were  first used to make molasses, and by the late 1850s the settlers grew sugar cane.  When there was no sugar cane in season, the water to the mill was turned off.  Some of the children of the fort discovered a broken spot in the rim of the wheel where they could crouch, hold the spokes and revolve swiftly for amusement.


In 1856 after much of the fort population dispersed,  about 25 families remained on a two mile stretch of 2nd Street from Territorial Road (Washington Blvd.) westward to Perry’s Lane  (1200 West).  There were also three or more farms east of Washington Blvd.  These families became part of the new civil Bingham Fort District, which also included the colonies that later became Slaterville, Harrisville and Marriottsville.  People were so scattered that it was necessary to civilly organize them at that time into a large district.  [22]

Traveling Bishop Bingham

Traveling Bishop Bingham

Bishop Bingham moved into Ogden and served there as bishop of the Ogden First Ward and traveling bishop to Slaterville/2nd Street where Thomas Richardson was made  The Presiding Elder.  [23]



After the dire circumstances of the Hard Winter, many blessings were needed.  A major event, known as the Mormon Reformation occurred the next winter.  This movement was begun by the forceful preaching of Jedediah Grant, a counselor in the Mormon First Presidency, and was followed up in local areas with speeches and calls to repentance.   Robert E. Baird and Isaac Newton Goodale took a prominent part in carving out the work of Reformation on 2nd Street under the direction of Luman Shurtleff, with a view to get the Saints to repent of their sins, their shortcomings and follies and to live lives of virtue and integrity before the Lord so that his blessing, prosperity, and peace might be more abundantly manifest among the people of Zion.  They were designated to query or “catechize” each member with probing questions that underlined church activity and faithfulness.  Each person was to confess his sins in relation to the question asked and then be rebaptized in a renewal of their covenants.  The “catechism” of 27 questions was recorded by Luman Shurtleff and can be read in the History of the Lynne Ward.[24]

A little over 200 people in the Bingham Fort District were catechized during January and February of 1857.  Early in the spring most of the people of 2nd Street were rebaptized in Mill Creek. [25]  The blessings and peace and prosperity that were sought came about in an ironic  turn of events over the next two years.



On July 24, 1857, on the 10th anniversary of the arrival of the Saints into the valley and during their pioneer day celebration in Big Cottonwood Canyon, messengers came with the alarming news that the U.S. Army was on its way to Utah to put down the alleged Mormon rebellion against the Union.  The settlers were shocked and feared the prospect of being driven unjustly from their homes again as they were in Missouri and Illinois.  

Erastus Bingham and family left the celebration and returned at once to Ogden.   Chauncey W. West had just received from Governor Young the commission of colonel in the Weber Miltia, and in March the following year, he was promoted to brigadier-general in the Nauvoo Legion (Utah Militia).  

The Lynne Ward history recorded:  

Capt. WRR Stowell (1822-1901)

Capt. W.R.R. Stowell

All the able bodied men were mustered into service in the militia under Chauncey W. West to assist in watching the invading forces ordered by the general government against the Mormons.  The U. S. Army had reached Ham’s Fork in the vicinity of Fort Bridger.  The determined defensive position taken by our militia and by means of large scouting parties … was to harass, discourage and confuse,  and to induce the army to camp for winter in the locality of Fort Bridger…  Maj. Jos. Taylor and Capt. W.R.R. Stowell were taken prisoners by their enemies.” [26]

            Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston led the federal troops.

Buglers of Johnston's army in the Utah War

Buglers of Johnston’s army in the Utah War


Mary Cruse Stone 1811-1886

Mary Cruse Stone 1811-1886

One afternoon on 2nd Street, during this tense period of uncertainty about their homes, there was a bad electrical storm.  Mary Cruse Stone was hurrying to their cabin (on today’s Lynne School Lane) to get out of the storm, and “she was knocked down by lightning just as she was near the door.  Her youngest child, James, then a small boy, was running beside her holding on to her skirt.  She was knocked unconscious, and the little fellow said the soldiers had shot his mother with a cannon.  The force of it knocked him down too, but he was not unconscious.  A ball of fire seemingly as large as a base ball, passed on into the cabin and made its exit up through the roof near the fireplace, tearing a great hole in the roof.  It was around the time of Johnston’s army, and the boy cried thinking that his mother had been killed by the soldiers. ..” [later she revived and was carried into the cabin][27]

YESTERDAY: First cabin home of William and Mary Cruse Stone on today’s Lynne School Lane;it was struck by lightning in 1858; photo c. 1930.

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick  Miller 1838-1922

In the fall of 1857 while others were in preparatory military training, or “sword exercises” as Isaac Newton Goodale described it, Frederick A. Miller, age 19, was called to go on a mission to Fort Lemhi in the eastern part of what is now Idahoto educate the Indians and teach them the Gospel”.  He left on October 3rd and arrived there October 27th. [28]

In the spring of 1858, Brigham Young decided to abandon or threaten to abandon the northern Utah settlements instead of fighting.   Should the army manage to enter the Salt Lake Valley, it would find the homes laid waste by fire and the people gone.  The army’s victory would be  without significance.   The Lynne Ward history reads:  

“The people  being in harmony with the general spirit and feeling of the whole church, took up their line of march for the southern country leaving a detail of men to guard the homes and property or to destroy it by the lighted torch in the event of the hostile forces gaining the ascendancy.  Never was a people more determined to defend their rights and their religion against a crusade inaugurated by the very power and authority which should have extended protection.  Nay more, who should have rendered them aid and sympathy in their undertakings to convert the sterile desert wastes of these mountain regions into cultivated fields and farms and make happy homes for themselves and families, surrounded for neighbors by the hostile savage of the plains, 1000 miles from any other portion of those cultivated and civilized inhabitants.” [29]

Thomas Bingham, Erastus Bingham Jr. and Isaac Newton Goodale were the men left on 2nd Street under the command of Col. David Moore, with      “instructions to burn the houses and crops if worst came to worst and the Saints definitely must seek a new homeland.”  

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick  Miller 1838-1922

On the 28th of March Frederick A. Miller left Fort Lemhi driving Lewis Shurtliff and his wife with him as they had no team.  On April 11, 1858 Miller arrived in Ogden and found it a “dreary looking place as the inhabitants had moved from their homes to the southern part of the Territory.”  He too went south and found his mother living in Springville.[30]  


Nancy Naomi Tracy

Nancy  Tracy

Moses and Nancy Tracy and his family packed up with the Saints and moved south for safety in spite of his poor health.  They got as far as Payson, about 100 miles away, and Moses could go no further. See history of the Tracy family for more details.

After months of standoff  and evacuation the Mormons and the U. S. government worked out their differences and the “Utah War” was brought to an end.  Homes were still intact and The residents of 2nd Street and the people of Weber County returned gratefully to their homes.  ” A fair crop was gathered  considering the circumstances, the home guard in charge having performed faithfully their duty toward the people.”[31]   Johnston’s army settled in Camp Floyd, in a valley 50 miles SW of Salt Lake City and remained there until 1861.

 With the end of the Utah War came a new governor, Alfred Cumming, the presence of federal troops, and outsiders bringing new businesses to the territory.  In some ways the “Utah War” was a God-send as the settlers were able to buy cheap the soldier’s discarded clothing, such as coats and suits, and the stationary army purchased supplies from the settlers.  This, of course, put more money in circulation.[31a]

After the Utah War was over Thomas Richardson was called to preside as (branch) president in 1858 over Pioneer Road and 2nd Street area.  Robert E. Baird, William B. Hutchens and John Laird acted as local teachers on 2nd Street.  

Three families  in the Bingham Fort District in the Marriott area requested permission from Governor Cumming to leave Utah Territory in April 1858, and permission was granted; two of the families were unhappy with harsh frontier life and the other objected to the theocratic government (See Melling Way for more details).  [32]

Fanny Romrell Ducloux

Fanny Romrell Ducloux

Fanny Romrell, daughter of Francis Romrell on 2nd Street, married a federal soldier from Johnston’s army named Maurice Ducloux in 1859.  The Romrells were from the Isle of Jersey and spoke both French and English, and Ducloux was a Frenchman from Alabama.  In 1860 Fanny and Maurice moved back to Alabama. It would be fourteen years before she would return.



ONE CABIN THAT SAW THE PASSAGE OF THE EVENTS OF THE 1850s STILL STANDS: Log cabin of Erastus Bingham located today in Lagoon’s Pioneer Village, Farmington, Utah.



Robert Erwin Baird, 1817-1875

Robert E. Baird, 1817-1875

 In 1863 2nd Street was ecclesiastically organized into the 5th Ecclesiastical District of the LDS Church, called Lynne 5th or Lynne District for short.  Lynne was the name of the postal route through the Bingham Fort Settlement.  Robert E. Baird from Ireland was branch president with Daniel F. Thomas from Wales and James Field as counselors.  All the presidency lived in today’s area of 2nd Street and 1000 West. 

At this time there was little separation between the branch and civil government.  In 1864 Robert E. Baird was appointed the first Justice of the Peace and Edward Stone constable.


Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Emigrants continued to come into Weber County, and Frederick A. Miller, age 23, was called to help them across the high plains. William Hutchens donated a fine pair of oxen named Buck and Brin to the Church to help bring the immigrants across the plains. In April of 1861 Frederick Miller started for Omaha “in Joseph Horn’s company after people who were not able to bring themselves to Utah.  In crossing the plains, I herded the cattle at night and had a good time and plenty of work.  It was amusing to see the emigrants gathering buffalo chips for fuel and helping to take care of the cattle.  This was all new to them. On our way home we met the U.S. Army which had been called back from Utah on account of the rebellion in the Southern States.”[33]  Many new emigrants were attracted to the rich soil of the Bingham Fort Settlement.


 The Bingham School was used for ten years, from 1853 to 1863. By this time the increased population required a larger school.[34]  The new Mill Creek schoolhouse was made of logs and had a large rock fireplace and chimney.  It was located one mile west of Five Points on the corner of Mill Creek Lane and 2nd Street in 1863.   Mill Creek Lane ran from 2nd Street  to 12th Street and was located where today’s railroad tracks run.  After the tracks were laid Mill Creek Lane was pushed to the west of the tracks.

The 1863 Mill Creek School had a large rock fireplace and chimney.

The 1863 Mill Creek School had a large rock fireplace and chimney; it was located on the corner of 2nd Street and Mill Creek Lane (today’s RR tracks).


LEMON SURVEY: Schools on 2nd Street were in the center of block 1W4N, 1/2 mile west of Five Points; Mill Creek School was located the end of block 1W3N, 1 mile west of Five Points, on SE corner of 2nd St. and Mill Creek Lane.

LEMON SURVEY shows the location of the Bingham School in the middle of the old fort and the Mill Creek Schoolhouse on the corner of 2nd Street and Mill Creek Lane.

  Following are two interesting stories that happened at the Mill Creek School in the 1860s, an amusing snake story and a serious Indian encounter.


Amanda Snow Bingham

Amanda Snow Bingham

In 1864 Mrs. Amanda Bingham  was the teacher, and on a chilly fall day she made the first fire of the season in the fireplace.   When the fire began burning brightly, “one of the smaller boys called out excitedly, “Look at that big snake.”  Startled, the children looked up and saw a huge bull snake crawling out of a hole between the rocks of the hearth in front of the fireplace.  The teacher screamed and jumped on to her desk; the little girls began to cry and shrink as far away from the fireplace as possible, but the boys seemed quite unconcerned.  However, all watched breathlessly as the snake wriggled out of its confining quarters.  It must have been difficult because.. it raised its head, as though straining all its might to pull the rest of its body out of the hole, and the farther it got out, the higher it raised itself in the air until it seemed unbelievably large and fearsome looking.  .. and there were small legs on the snake’s belly.  Finally it dropped to the floor and wriggled loose.  After it was all out, it lay still for a moment.  It seemed quite dumb and not at all alert.  One of the boys said, “That is just a bull snake; it won’t hurt anyone, it eats frogs.”  Then Mrs. Bingham called to one of the boys to open the door so the snake could go outside.  As soon as it left the room, the boy slammed the door shut. ..  The snake was six or eight feet long.”


Another dramatic incident occurred in the Mill Creek Schoolhouse in about 1864 between the children and the Indians who came begging from the children at lunch time.  

The Indian women were always begging from the settlers and when they were camped in the meadows and school was in session the women used to come to the schoolhouse at noon and beg the children’s lunches.  It wasn’t very often that Mary Hutchens took her lunch when she went to school; she preferred to run home and back.

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

One day as she neared the schoolhouse for the afternoon’s session, she saw a crowd of Indians at the schoolhouse, some on horseback, and they all seemed to be in a rather serious mood, as they were talking and gesticulating.  Mary had always been told that if she minded her business, no harm would come to her, and as she had been use to Indians all her life, she had no fear in approaching the crowd.  Then too, she saw her teacher Mrs. (Amanda) Bingham coming down the street, so she figured she would be safe. 

They arrived about the same time.  Mary heard Mrs. Bingham ask what was the trouble, and the Indian chiefs closed about her and commenced talking excitedly.  They conversed together in the Indian language for quite a while. Mary turned to one of the school girls and said, “What is the matter?” 

The little girl answered that during the noon hour quite a number of the squaws had come begging for the children’s lunches and that a number of them had little nursing babies and that the boys made fun of the squaws for exposing their breasts so the squaws went away. 

Mary looked about her.  The teacher was talking very earnestly to the Indian chiefs, and they apparently were becoming quieter.  She noticed too that a lot of the children were already in the schoolhouse.  Then Mrs. Bingham called the children to gather together into the schoolroom and when they got inside they found a number already there, also two or three Indians; and following closely on the heels of the children from outside, came the rest of the Indians, until the room was soon crowded to capacity.

Then the teacher called for order and told the children that the Indians had come to report that some of the boys had insulted their squaws by making fun of them.  She asked what boys were guilty of the offense and some owned up to the deed; others had to be named, but at least a half dozen were designated as being parties to the offense.  They were the larger boys from 11 to 12 years of age and one was her boy.

Then she said that the Indians were demanding the boys so they could punish them as they felt they deserved, but that she had finally prevailed on their letting her do the whipping, though they would superintend the punishment and decide when each boy had had enough. 

Then she asked if the boys would rather she did the whipping or turn them over to the Indians. Of course the boys agreed that it was preferable for her to whip them.  Then she had them go out and bring in three green willows each.  She braided three together and whipped each boy with a new braided willow whip until the Indians in charge agreed that the culprit had been punished enough; then she took another boy and punished him.  It took a long time and the teacher appeared exhausted when it was finished. The boys were crying badly, so were the smaller girls.  It was a tense and critical time, and it frightened one to hear the falling of the whip, the outcries of the boys and the grunts of satisfaction from the Indians at the punishment. 

Then the Indians filed out of the schoolroom after telling the teacher things had been settled to their satisfaction, and as they left the school ground on their ponies they whooped in a bloodcurdling manner and caused quite a commotion.

Then the teacher very seriously addressed the pupils – she told them how very near they had come to being seriously hurt by the Indians, and that if the boys had been delivered into their hands there was no telling what might have happened to them, and the result would have been that all of the settlers in the valley might have suffered; that the Indians were wild and primitive and they could not understand that the boy’s comments had been but a crude joke.  She explained that Brigham Young had made a treaty with the Indians that the white people would live at peace with them; and that the Indians had been more honorable than the boys in this instance because they had not taken the boys while she was away but had waited until she had come before taking action; that the children must learn to respect the rights of the Indians as the country really belonged to them first; and that the white people were the interlopers and should therefore always treat the Indians with respect, as there were just a handful of white people and many thousands of Indians in the valley. 

The boys were very much subdued, and they listened intently, as did the rest of the children, and as it was impossible to settle down to studying after the awful incident, the teacher dismissed the school and the children went home. Mary told her father about it and he agreed with Mrs. Bingham in everything she had said and done, and said she had averted a very serous catastrophe by punishing the boys and settling the dispute to the satisfaction of the Indians then and there.  He warned the children again not to go into the Indian camps but to keep to the roadways when they left home and to be courteous to the Indians always.[35]


Because of the proximity of the school to Mill Creek, the children often swam in the swimming hole at recess in segregated groups during the 1860s and the 1870s.  When it was the girls turn to swim, they wore their petticoats, afterwards hanging them on a bush to dry.[36]

Over the following years kids continued to swim in the Mill Creek swimming hole, even until the 1950s; it was located east of the RR bridge over Mill Creek near the end of 7th St; photo below shows Yvona Clayton and Macel Stone at the Mill Creek swimming hole in 1927.

Kids continued to swim in the Mill Creek swimming hole until the 1950s; it is located east of the RR bridge over Mill Creek near the end of 7th St; photo 1927.


Many of the migratory Indians set up camps in the meadows of 2nd Street along Mill Creek, next to the ponds, the wetlands or the irrigation ditches.  One spring day in about 1865 William and Eliza Hutchens left two daughters at home in the area of today’s 2nd and 1000 West while they went to Ogden.  While they were gone the Indians began migrating and filled Washington Ave and 2nd Street as they sought places for their camps.  All day the roads were crowded with Indians moving west and settling in the meadows. 

The girls were afraid that the Indians would see them alone and hid in the sheep pen.  But the Indians took no notice of the children.  “Their parents were delayed getting home because the road was so crowded with Indians.”[37]

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Several tribes would camp in the meadows around 2nd Street at the same time. Mary Hutchens was a child but could tell the chiefs apart by the way that they wore their hair.  Indian Jack had the longest hair of any of the chiefs.  He wore his hair parted in the middle with beads strung into the braids that rattled as he walked.  No other man of his tribe dared to dress his hair like the chief except his own sons.

Little Soldier parted  his hair in the middle, crossed the braids in the back and then brought them over his shoulder.  No one except his sons could wear their hair that way.[37a]

While living at 2nd and 1000 West the Hutchens children like to sleep outside on warm nights on the roof of their shed, making their bed by laying their blankets in the clean straw on the roof. On hot nights their parents would sleep there too.  Sometimes on nights like these, when the Indians camped by Mill Creek, they could lay here quietly and watch the Indians at their camp fires singing or dancing their many ceremonial dances.Some [dances were] so fierce it made them shiver and others so majestic and solemn that it made one want to weep.  Then others were just the opposite – almost enticing them into jumping up and down in merriment too.”[37b]

TODAY: Mill Creek in Business Depot Ogden – Indians camped here by Mill Creek in the 1850s and 1860s; photo 2009.


It was not uncommon for the Indians to come to the settlers’ houses to visit or to ask for things they needed.  But in the 1850s and early 1860s it was not considered safe for the settlers to go casually into the Indian camps.  The white children were cautioned to always stay on the roads, be respectful to the Indians and never go into the Indian camps.   Of course, there are always exceptions, and the exception to this protocol was Arthur Stone from England who developed a more personal friendship with some of the young Indian bucks.

“Art” was thirteen years old when his parents settled in Bingham’s Fort in 1854.  From 2ndStreet he could look into the Indian camps and see young men practicing to be warriors.  They would paint their face with different colors of clay, ride bareback and practice horse maneuvers and target shooting, and yell war cries.  There were numerous tribes of Indians encamped in the meadows simultaneously and the wicki-ups of the chiefs were decorated with rows and rows of scalps. Art was fascinated.

Arthur Stone (1841-1876)

Arthur Stone (1841-1876)

By the mid 1860s Art was a great favorite with the Indians.  On Sunday, when there was never any work in the fields,  Art would be surrounded by a group of Indian bucks, and he participated in their games of all kinds.  Sometimes it was riding horses, and Art had a wonderful riding horse; the saddle and bridle trappings were ornamented or embroidered beautifully with Indian handwork.  He had a wonderful suit of buckskin with leggings, moccasins, etc. to match.  Everything he had seemed to be as nice as the greatest chiefs’ sons.  The Indians seemed to admire him greatly.  His face was painted like the Indian’s faces as he joined them in their games.

Art was a fiddler for dances, and it was not unusual for Indian bucks to come to the Mormon dances.  However the bucks never danced with white girls, just with each other or a white boy.  But Art took an Indian with him to the dances who was handsomely dressed in white doe-skin, heavily embroidered and fringed.  He was a beautiful dancer, and he danced with white girls.  The girls liked to dance with that Indian as he could danced as many fancy steps as any of the white boys.

 Art Stone built a rock house at 159 West 2nd Street in about 1863.[38]

TODAY: Art Stone rock house, c. 1863, 159 W. 2nd St., rear.



At 507 Washington Blvd. (then called Main Street) John (Jean) and Anna Furrer Cardon built a log cabin in c. 1863 and managed a general merchandise store at 503 Washington Blvd.  Adjacent to their home they built the first carding mill in Weber County.  

They dug a loop on the Bingham Fort ditch to supply power for the mill.  John made a water wheel, tables and pickers of native lumber.  The iron used in the machinery was brought from the East by ox team.  After the mill was completed, John and his wife did all the carding at night after the farm work was finished.  

The wool was made into batts or quilts and rolls from which yarn was made.  These batts and rolls were held or pinned together with thorns from Hawthorne bushes.  Wool was brought to this mill from all over Weber and Cache Counties.  It was quite successful, and they operated this mill for about fifteen years.


Jean Cardon immigrated from Italy and Anna from Switzerland.  Anna received medical training in Switzerland practiced medicine in the Bingham Fort District after her arrival in 1857, often setting broken bones and once even sewing on the scalp of an injured youth.  Her service was provided without charge because Brigham Young had counseled her many years earlier that her mission was to use her medical knowledge in healing the sick and needy without remuneration and great would be her blessings.  She traveled on horseback to visit the sick.[39]

YESTERDAY: The Cardons in front of their brick house at 507 Washington Blvd.; their 1863 log cabin was replaced with a rock house in 1866 with this brick house in 1887.

Doctors were only called in emergencies.  Midwives usually assisted in home births (see Stone Pond Road for story of home birth), families were knowledgeable in home remedies, and Indians shared their knowledge of herbs and so forth.

William Hutchens

William Hutchens

“When William Hutchens was cutting wood his ax slipped and cut his foot just between his first and second toes… When his shoe was removed it was an awful looking cut.  [Eliza] washed it and got the the blood stopped.  Then she covered it with wood ashes and bound it up. The wood ashes were to disinfect it.  It healed rapidly and was all right again before very long.”[39a]   

One time Eliza Hutchens was sick for a long time and couldn’t regain her strength.  Many cures were tried to no avail. Finally the Indian medicine man came and made a remedy from the castors of a dead beaver.  Eliza took it everyday, and it wasn’t long before she was fully recovered.[39b]



In 1863 the assistant Ogden postmaster, Walter Thompson, named the postal route on 2nd Street “Lynne”  after his native Lynne, Scotland.  The word Lynne is derived from an old Celtic word “lenna” meaning pool or lake, and the central feature of beauty on 2nd Street was Stone’s Pond.   

Three years later, in 1866, the government established a post office in the cabin of Lewis Taft at today’s address of 235 W. 2nd Street; it was known as the Lynne Post Office. [40]


Cabin of Lewis Taft served as the first post office in settlement

Cabin of Lewis Taft served as Lynne Post Office.

TODAY – Historical marker and ghost cabin of Lewis Taft at 253 W. 2nd St., Ogden, Utah (Eagle Scout project Nathan Christiansen Oct. 2011).

Historical sign and red ghost cabin designate the site of Lewis Taft at 253 W. 2nd St., Ogden, Utah; the Taft cabin also served as Lynne Post Office (the Ghost cabin was Eagle Scout project Nathan Christiansen in Oct. 2011; wind destroyed ghost cabin in 2016).

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Mary Elizabeth Hutchens c. 1872

Mary Hutchens remembered Mr. Taft like this:

“Old Mr. Taft was the postmaster.  He was a tall, spare old man coming originally from Vermont.  He was very well educated.  Only had one son.  He was very kind o all the children and the children loved him.  On the 4th of July and the 24th he invariably marched with the little boys in the parade, organizing them into groups.  He was a natural musician.  He could play most anything, and he made his own instruments.  At one time he made enough fifes out of willows for a whole group of boys, and he taught them to play so well that he led them in a street parade, and they played the simple tunes then prevalent, all playing together on hand-made fifes.” [40a]


Lynne was a beautiful location with grassy meadows, creeks, springs, and irrigation ditches, but there were not many trees.  In the 1860s there were not many trees in the county except cottonwoods by the creeks and rivers, so there was a wide  and distant view from 2nd Street northward all the way to the Hot Springs.  One house could be viewed at the Hot Springs, and that was the road-house where the stage horses fed. Indian camps could also be seen in the distance.  At that time Indian camps extended from the Hot Springs to the Sand Ridge (Roy).   Present tree growth now obscures the old view to the Hot Springs. [40b]


TODAY –  Beautiful view of Ben Lomond from West 2nd St.; photo 2010

TODAY – Beautiful view of Ben Lomond from Five Points.



With the growth of the Mormon branch, the school, two mills and a post office, there was now sufficient growth in the settlement of 2nd Street to civilly organize a precinct that was given the same name as the post office: Lynne.  

Robert E. Baird, the Mormon branch president, was appointed Justice of the Peace of the new Lynne Precinct in 1864.  In the theocratic government of the Utah Territory, Church officials and government or city officers were often the same.  If a vote were held, there was generally a single slate of officers prescribed by the local Mormon leaders; these nominations were seldom opposed and were voted for unanimously in a meeting on the eve of the election by the raising of hands.  

Edward Stone was appointed constable. “A good efficient man” was appointed by President Baird to be constable, similar to a priesthood calling, and he served without pay.  All this changed, of course, after the coming of the railroad. [40c]

Robert Erwin Baird, Justice of the Peace

Justice of the Peace Robert E. Baird

Constable Edward Stone

Constable Edward Stone

2nd Street was the heart of the new Lynne Precinct with farmhouses on either side of the street fronting farms that extended 20 acres north or south to the outer boundaries of the precinct on today’s North Street and 7th Street.  The precinct included a scope of country that was about a mile wide or equal to ten blocks north to south and about three miles wide east to west.[40d]

YESTERDAY: Lynne Precinct, organized in 1864, enlarged the borders of the Bingham’s Fort Settlement.

In the 1860s there were a few small co-operative stores in Ogden, but the people were still largely self sufficient, providing for their own needs.  It was a special event when a family acquired a commodity like a clock, a rug or an organ.  Before the railroad these exclusive luxuries came to the territory in wagons and sold at a high price.

In the 1860, before the business development at Five Points, there was a little “business hub” on 2nd Street in the old fort that included the school, the post office, Sam Gates’ molasses mill, and Ed Stone’s in-home produce store and later photo gallery.  In 1866 William Hutchens established a small saw-mill near the old Bingham School.


Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Farming flourished in Lynne during the 1860s.  Good crops were gathered in this decade, all kinds of produce was in good demand and at high prices in Montana where Montana North mining interests developed. Gold diggings yielded the miners very profitable returns, opening up good markets for all kinds of provisions for the people in northern Utah.   Wheat at different periods ranged from $4 to $8 per bushel and flour from $12 to $16 per sack.  In the summer of 1864 Frederick A. Miller went with H. V. Shurtliff  to Virginia City in Montana with a train of wagons loaded with flour, butter and other articles to sell to the miners.  

In the fall and winter of the same year, Miller herded cattle and horses on the Promontory Mountain for the people of Weber County.  This was the first herd that had ever been taken there, and it made a fine winter range. The animals came out fat in the spring when he delivered them to their owners.[41]



In 1867 the people knew that the future railroad tracks would replace Mill Creek Lane, so the Mill Creek school house was no longer in a suitable location.  A new school was built on 2nd Street back at the site of the old Bingham schoolhouse.  It was much larger than the Mill Creek school and was made of adobe,  located a half-mile west of Five Points on today’s NE corner of 2nd and Lynne School Lane.  It was built by taxation and served for school, church and all public purposes.   This improved building was named Lynne School.  “It was an adobe school with one big room.  The hats and coats were hung on the walls.  It didn’t have a fireplace but a tall iron stove.The room was plastered and whitewashed and had a shingle roof.”   The school was the hub of activity for the settlement, and many houses were clustered near by.  Mary Maxham built a stylish house next to the school at today’s 214 W. 2nd for her convenience of attending socials and church meetings.[42](Some accounts say that the school was built in 1866)

1867 adobe Lynne School.

1867 adobe Lynne School.

Sam Gates’ unmarried daughter, Nancy Jane, was seventeen in July 1868 when she started “keeping school” in the subscription school on 2nd Street with 34 scholars in the “Lynne 10 District”.   On September 22, 1868, she recorded in her journal:  

“… Went to school, the wind blew a perfect hurricane from the east and the windows of the schoolhouse were all open and every scholar had had a cold, and the wind blew their book leaves back and forth and that made them so cross, and I must admit that I was  cross too.  I went and saw brother Taft who was one of the Trustees of the school and he said the Schoolhouse ought to be fixed, (and I knew that without his telling me) but they had nothing to fix it with.  After school I went to Sister Hutchens and engaged 26 lbs rolls to spin went home and open 2 skeins. 

Got up  Wednesday morning and spun 1 ½ skeins yarn, went to school, it was the 23rd day of Sept. and rather cold but warmer than the 22, the wind having gone down with the sun the night before.  Bros. Taft and Fields visited the school in the forenoon, and said they were satisfied with the proceedings of the school; they praised the Geography class and encouraged them to  continue to learn as fast as possible telling them what a blessing it was to understand geography.  They made fair promises to have the schoolhouse finished. When school was dismissed for noon they went home promising to come again in a short time and bring the rest of the Trustees with them, and also the President.   I went home ate my dinner returned a 1 o’clock p.m. and taught school as usual. Dismissed the school at 4 p.m. went home spent the evening pleasantly…” 

Many of her pleasant evenings after school were spent in activities such as visiting with friends, an evening stroll, a peach paring at Mehitable Bingham’s, horse back riding, spinning, and journal writing.   She began keeping a journal in September 1868 after reading “a little paper in the Juvenile Instructor edited by George Q. Cannon”.  She quit teaching in November and enrolled herself in a ladies boarding school in Ogden to further her own education.  Her school mistress there was Olie Wideborg.[42]

Nancy Jane Gates married Levi Taylor in 1871.



Night dances were held weekly in the schoolhouse for the unmarried and sometimes twice a week. Sometimes a number of young bucks would come to the singles’ dances, but never squaws.  The dances always ended at dawn.[43]

The young children, eight and nine year olds, had little dances at the school on Saturday afternoons.  Someone would fiddle for them and they would dance until the sun went down.  A little girl was always escorted to the dance by a little boy; the little boys always took one or more little girls, and these arrangements were made by the parents.  After the girls and boys were 12 years old they could go to the night dances and select their own “date”.  But in order to escort a girl to a night dance, the boy had ask the girl’s mother for permission.  Then the mother told her daughter who was coming to pick her up for the dance.[44]

Monthly dances were held for the married.  “On that evening some of the young ladies would take care of the babies, and some of the young men would take charge of the fire or other duties; the married people danced and the young people were expected to just tend the babies and help them with the lunch at midnight.”

Old pioneers danced the English dances like the minuet, especially William Stone of England, Robert E. Baird of Ireland and an old English couple living in the Hutchen’s tent.  Younger folks like to step dance. ” Willard Bingham would start to step dance – others would join him until there would be a floor full of dancers.  Not many would stay until the end because Turkey in the Straw goes pretty fast.”  

Waltzing and quadrilling were also popular.[45]


William Hutchens

William Hutchens 1828-1885

In the fall a husking-bee might be held at a farmer’s house.  One year William Hutchens raised 20 acres of corn and held a husking-bee at his house.

“The married people would come dressed in their everyday clothing, and they would husk corn until they got tired.. Very often someone (unmarried) found a red ear of corn, and the one who found it ran around the circle with someone of the opposite sex in pursuit.  If the one who had husked the red ear was caught before he or she was able to circle back to the starting point, the two kissed.   Mary thought the unmarried red-corn finders never tried to run very fast, and someone was always getting caught.  Many times when a red ear was found, there was so much foolishness and play (among the young unmarried ones) that it would be fifteen or twenty minutes before they settled back down to husking corn…  

Eliza Hutchens,

Eliza Hutchens  1837-1905


When the work was finished Eliza served fried cakes, and everyone had a lot to eat.  After they finished eating, they danced in the dooryard to the music of fiddle players.  Everyone talked and sang and had a good time until daylight.  Afterwards, it always took William two or three days to put away the ears of corn that had been husked and tie up the corn fodder for winter use.[46]




On April 23, 1868, Chauncey W. West organized a combined Female Relief Society for Marriott and Lynne (See History of the Lynne Ward for details)

EXPANDING THE COMMUNITY on EAST SIDE: Miller, Christofferson, Smuin, Harrop

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

Frederick Andrus Miller 1838-1922

In 1868 Frederick A. Miller acquired 20 acres of land on the east side of Lynne Ward (5th Street east of Washington Blvd.) and moved to his own place with his mother and grandmother.  There was a log house with two rooms on the farm.  The land was run down and had to be manured before good crops were raised upon it, which kept him busy for a few years.[47]

Brigham Young sent Rasmus Christofferson of Denmark to Lynne and gave him the land for valiant leadership in the Black Hawk war; his land was located at today’s survey from 2nd to 3rd Street and between Washington Blvd. and Adams Ave.  There was no water available here, and Rasmus supervised the construction of the Christofferson Ditch in 1868 to irrigate the the east side of  Lynne District.   His ditch was known as the Christofferson Ditch is now called the Upper Lynne.  

The construction of this ditch opened up the east side of Lynne for settlement in 1868 just as the Bingham Fort Ditch (now called the Lower Lynne) opened up the west side of Five Points in 1851. Christofferson served as watermaster of his new ditch for thirteen years.   In 1873 the shareholders of the Christofferson Ditch combined with the “Old Irrigation Company of Lynne”, aka the Bingham Fort Ditch shareholders, to regulate together the ditches and  business affairs of both ditches.   Together these two ditches irrigated 881 acres of land in the Lynne Community.[47c]

George Smuin 1844-1913

George Smuin 1844-1913

George Smuin and his new bride, Eliza Gaisford, settled in the expanding Lynne Community in 1869 and ate onions and potatoes the first year to get by. George was grateful to his family who had enabled him to emigrate from England in 1864 and could not forget their sacrifice.  He had worked hard since his arrival to save for their passage.  He and his bride continued to work hard and live frugally. George had compassion for other immigrants and went back several times as a teamster to help them finish their journey across the plains on the ox train.  

Concerning their sending money to England,  Eliza G. Smuin recorded, “This put us back a number of years because we had to make a great sacrifice, but I knew we were blessed for so doing.  We worked faithfully to gather and soon had a good home.”

George Smuin secured land on the east side of Lynne, extending from today’s address of 4th Street to 5th Street between Adams Ave. and east to the hill.  This property was next to F. A. Miller’s farm.  With the new Christofferson ditch, the east side of Lynne now had an appeal to farmers.[47d]

Joseph Harrop 1828-1900

Joseph Harrop 1828-1900

Joseph Harrop and family came from England and gathered to Lynne in 1862 to began a freighting business, hauling Utah flour and produce to mine workers in Montana.  By freighting he earned the money to purchase the land on the east side of Main Street between 4th and 5th Street next to Miller and Smuin.

Harrop St. named for Joseph Harrop family.

Harrop St. named for Joseph Harrop family who owned the land between 4th and 5th Sts. on Washington Blvd.

1896 map detail shows Rasmus Christofferson property in pink, George Smuin property in yellow and location of F. A. Miller 1877 house S. of Smuin on Washington Ave.

1896 map detail shows Rasmus Christofferson property in pink, George Smuin property in yellow, Harrops between 4th & 5th Streets, and F. A. Miller house south of Harrops.


[1] Andrew Jensen, Slaterville Ward History, manuscript, 1893, p. 1; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, manuscript,1893, p. 1, 2 – *conflicting dates of 1849 and 1850 are both reported for the date of Esith (Asa) Rice’s farm and Charles Burk is recorded as arriving in 1849; Andrew Jensen, newspaper, Day By Day With The Utah Pioneers 1847; Annie Jones Maw, Historical Information of the Early Ogden, manuscript, in possession of Joyce B. Maw, Ogden Ut.; Record of the Farming Lands, North Ogden Plat Lemon Survey Made Oct. 1850, Drawer 56l, Family History Library of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ogden Utah; Daughters of Utah Pioneers plaque #279, 1963, at 133 Childs Ave., Ogden, Utah; Sketch by David Moore, Written from Records and Memory, manuscript, p. VI; Joyce B. Maw, Ogden Pioneer Forts and the People Who Lived There, 2004, p. 116; Ogden City, A Bulletin of Community News, March 2008, p. 2; Deseret News, What life was like for the Mormon pioneers after entering the Salt Lake Valley, by Ben Tullis.
[2] Editors Elden J. and Anne S. Watson, The Isaac Newton Goodale Journal 1850-1857, manuscript, transcribed 1981, p. 25, 35-42.
[3 ]Milton  V. Backman, Jr., Joseph Smith’s Prophetic Statements Concerning LDS Colonization of the Rock Mountain Region, manuscript, p.1; Luman Andros Shurliff, His Personal History 1807-1884, printed at Litho grafics inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, p. 91,92  .
[3a] Ibid p. 95.
[3b]  Ibid, p. 95,96.
[4] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, Weber County’s History, Weber County Commission, 2000, p.58- 61; Gordon Q. Jones, Pioneer Forts in Ogden Utah, 1996, p.6;  Joyce B. Maw, Ogden Pioneer Forts and The People Who Lived There, manuscript, 2006, p. 206; Elwood I. Barker, Pioneer Forts in Ogden Utah 1848-1855, printed c. 1987, p. 16; see Ten Ditches and Mill Creek on menu of home page.
[5] Joyce B. Maw, Isaac Newton Goodale Life History, manuscript, 1996, p.13.
[6] Luman Andros Shurliff, His Personal History 1807-1884, p. 96,97.
[7] F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, manuscript, circa 1900, p.1, 2.

[8] Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, Publishers Press 1966, Salt Lake City Utah, p. 282, 283; comment from Little Soldier found in article by Scott R. Christensen, Chief Little Soldier, Shoshone Chieftain, Mormon Elder, Pioneer Magazine, Winter 1995, p. 18; James S. Brown, Life of A Pioneer, Geo. Q. Cannon & Sones Co., Printers, Salt Lake City, Utah, p. 348-350. NOTE: Following are two additional descriptions of the Indian trouble of 1853-1854:

Pleasant Green Taylor of Harrisville described the Indian trouble of 1853 and 1854 as follows in his autobiography.  He used the words “arrest” and “guard” in his description of the Indians in the fort.  These words are more harsh than the words of James S. Brown (above) and Isaac Newton Goodale (below):1853 – During this season attended to my farm and raised a good crop.  In July on account of the hostility of the Indians Pres. Young called upon us to move to certain points and make forts of safety, accordingly I moved my family to what is known as Binghams Fort.  At this place I assisted in building a wall of defense.  Some 110 families assembled at this place.  This being two miles from my farm.  We had to be continually on our guard.  I used to take my gun with me when I had need to go to my farm. 1854 – This season I also tended my farm and in the winter following was called on to take 8 men and arrest a band of Indians for stealing.  We succeeded and brought them to our fort and guarded them during the winter.”
Isaac Newton Goodale recorded the trouble with the Indians in 1854 in these words:Feb. 6, 1854: ..I worked at finding out the value of destruction of property caused by the late Indian difficulties. Sept. 1, 1854 : ½ day was thrashing oats, ½ day was (invited) to a Indian feast.  Sept. 3,1854:  Sunday.  Brigham Young came up to make a treaty with the Indians (and urged them to settle down like the white man)  Dec. 1, 1854:  This day there was a call for 25 men to go to take a body of Indians which had been killing cattle.  We took them and brought them into the Fort and tried to have them live with us.  Dec. 3, 1854:  Bro. (Wilford) Woodruff preached in the evening (and he brought a letter from Governor Young to the Indians)

[8a] Joyce B. Maw, Ogden Pioneer Forts and the People Who Lived There, 2004, p. 162,163.

[9] Luman Andros Shurliff History 1807-1881.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Editors Elden J. and anne S. Watson, The Isaac Newton Goodale Journal, 1850-1857, p. 87; Gwendolyn W. Shaw, History of Bingham’s Fort, manuscript, 1928, Weber College, Ogden Utah, p. 4.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Andrew Jensen, History of Slaterville Ward, manuscript, 1893, p.4; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, manuscript, 1893, p.3.
[14] Joyce Maw, Isaac Newton Goodale Life History, manuscript, 1988 revised, p. 16,17.
[15] Editor James Little, A Biographical Sketch of William Rufus Rogers Stowell, manuscript, when completed, carefully criticized for errors in facts by W. R. R. Stowell, Colonia Juarez, Mexico, Jan. 1893, p. 23.
[16]  Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p.93; Franklin L. West, Chauncey W. West, Pioneer – Churchman, 1965, p. 20.
[17] A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.2.
[18]  Editor James Little, A Biographical Sketch of William Rufus Rogers Stowell, p. 23.
[19] Ibid; Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p. 92.
[20] Editor James Little, A Biographical Sketch of William Rufus Rogers Stowell, p.23; Andrew Jensen, Slaterville Ward History, p. 3.
[21] Standard Examiner, Bingham’s Fort, Built to Guard Against Indians, Is Remembered By Subscriber (Fred A. Pierce), 1934; recorded by Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, manuscript, 1933, p. 19, 50; Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p. 182.
[21a] Elwood I. Barker, Pioneer Forts in Ogden Utah 1848-1855, c. 1987.
[22] Andrew Jensen, Slaterville Ward History, p.2; 1860 US census.
[23] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.3; Andrew Jensen, Slaterville Ward History, p.4.
[24] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, 1997, Utah State Historical Society and Weber County Commission, p.164-166;  Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.3;  Editors Elden J. and Anne S. Watson, The Isaac Newton Goodale Journal 1850-1857, p. 113,114.
[25] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p. 100; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 3.
[26] Ibid; Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p. 93.
[27]Sarah Stone Crowther, Mary Cruse Stone, manuscript, p.7.
[28] F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.2.
[29] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.3.
[30] A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.3. [31] Ibid; Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p.100.
[31a]Elvera Manful, Pioneer Personal History Mrs. Mary Elizabeth James Jones, Federal Writers Project, 1939, p. 3.
[32] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p. 101; Deseret Salt, Fanny Mary Ann Romeril, 1928, manuscript, p. 5; Editor Otis G. Hammond,The Utah Expedition 1857-1858: Letters of Capt. Jesse A. Gove, 10th Inf., U.S.A.,of Concord, N.H., 1928, p. 290.
[33] A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.3; Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner WelkerMary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p.58.
[34] Luman Andros Shurliff History 1807-1881, manuscript.
[35] Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 71,72, 85.

[36] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.4; Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 58.

[37] Ibid, p.88.

[37a] Ibid, p. 84.
[37b] Ibid, p.65.
[38] Ibid, p. 2, 88; Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, p. 139.
[39] www. thecardonfamilies.org/Histories/jean_cardon.htm, october 2011.
[39a] Recorded by Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 27.
[39b] Ibid, p. 55; p.5; Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p.216.
[40] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.5; en.m.wikipedia.org, on Sept. 6, 2016.
[40a] Recorded by Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p.75.
[40b] Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 16.
[40c] Richard W. Sadler and Richard C. Roberts, A History of Weber County, p. 131; Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 5; Karen Stark, Stories From The Collection of the weber County Daughters of Utah Pioneers Museum, 2012, p. 29.
[40d]  Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 1, 5.
[41] Ibid; F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.4; Annie Jones Maw (1875-1959), Historical Information of the Early Ogden, manuscript, p. 2.
[42] Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p. 5; Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 38; Journal of Nancy Jane Gates, 1868-1869, manuscript, p. 1,2.
[43] Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p.1, 88.
[44] Ibid, p. 23, 58.
[45] Ibid, p. 1,24, 27; Norman F. Bingham, Lillian B. Belnap and Lester S. Scoville, Sketch of the Life of Erastus Bingham and Family, c. 1951, p.51.
[46] Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p.1, 27.
[47] F. A. Miller, A Brief History of the Life of Frederick Andrus Miller, p.5.
[47c] Assessment Book, Lynne Irrigation Company, 1872-1885, p. 51.
[47d] Autobiography of Eliza Gaisford Smuin, manuscript, MS 6269 fd 2, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah; Compiled by Marvel Burke, George Smuin, 1939, p.3; 1896 Ogden City map.

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‘k. 301 W 2nd Street

Posted by weberhistory on August 29, 2021


Chauncey and Edna Stone House, 2020
“Our new house”, December 1925


This house is located within the confines of Bingham Fort.  In 1923 when Chauncey Stone began digging the foundation for this house, he discovered the rock foundation of the Bingham Fort tithing house.  This relic of the old fort caused a stir in the local community and an article in the Standard Examiner.  Chauncey re-used the rocks from the tithing house as cornerstones of the basement foundation.

The house was completed in December 1925 and the family moved in to celebrate Christmas in their new house with indoor plumbing, electricity and a majestic stove in the kitchen for cooking.  An oil burning heater in the living room provided central heat. 

Chauncey ran a dairy farm with 40 cows and sold milk to Weber Central Dairy for 23 years.  This era from 1914 to the 1940s is classified as The Golden Age of the Family Farm.

The 1850 south branch of the Lynne Ditch still flows west of the house.   Chauncey used the ditch to irrigate the farm and water the animals, just as it had been done since the ditch was built.

During the Depression, young boys came to work on the farm and were paid with milk and food.  A neighbor, Mrs. Anderson, said that her boys would never have grown properly without the milk and food they got from the farm during the Great Depression- “It saved their lives,” she said.

During the 1920s and 1930s the farm slowly transitioned from horse-and-plow to tractors and other mechanized machines.  During WWII, in additional to diversified crops, hemp was grown for the government and Italian prisoners of war from the Utah General Depot provided some of the labor on the farm.  At noon all the farm workers gathered around the granary for a home-cooked meal. A guard attended the prisoners, but there was a friendly comradery among them.

In 2004 the house and farm were accepted on the National Register of Historic Places and the farm was accepted in a Conservation Easement with the State of Utah.

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