2nd Street in Ogden, Utah, once called Bingham Fort Lane, was a pioneer street surveyed in 1851, the beginning of the Five Points settlement. Today a pioneer farm and 12 pioneer homes still stand on 2nd Street west of Washington Blvd.; these are among the oldest houses in Ogden.
Shoshoni Indians and other tribes camped in today’s Bingham Fort subdivision by a pond and in the area next to Mill Creek. Chief Little Soldier and Chief Terikee set a tone of friendliness to the first white settlers at the Ogden and Weber Rivers in 1848. After the accidental death of Chief Terikee in 1850 there was tension and conflict with the Indians, so Brigham Young sent more settlers from Salt Lake City to the Weber River Precinct to secure the settlement. With the large wave of settlers, surveyors laid out the land north of the Ogden River in the Lemon Survey. In 1853, due to the trouble with the Indians in central Utah and due to ongoing contention with the local Indians, Brigham Young ordered the people in the Weber settlements to “fort up”.
Settlers in the area of 2nd Street built Bingham Fort under the direction of Bishop Erastus Bingham and lived there from 1853 to 1856. The population of the fort was about 600 people, the largest fort in Weber County. The Bingham Fort residents petitioned to separate themselves from Ogden City so that they did not have to pay heavy taxes to build Ogden and also build a fort themselves without assistance; the petition failed.
After the fort disbanded many stayed and claimed farms in the area of the Bingham Fort Settlement; in 1864 it was organized as Lynne Precinct. 2nd Street at that time extended from the mountains to 1200 West and was the heart of the Lynne Precinct with farms on either side of the road extending both north and south as far as today’s North Street and 7th Street, as layed out in the Lemon Survey (see map below). The rich soil and abundance of water made Bingham Fort Lane (2nd St.) a choice place for farming and home building.
In 1889 Ogden City annexed Lynne Precinct and shortened the western boundary from 1200 West to 600 West, yielding 6 blocks to Slaterville. The area was now called Five Points. Mayor Kiesel renamed streets in Ogden in 1889, changing the name of Bingham Fort Lane to 2nd Street. In the 1890s Five Points grew so rapidly that some thought it might become the largest business district of Ogden.
Journals, biographies and the history of the Lynne Ward provide information on the fort era, the Lynne Precinct and the beginning of Five Points. There are also many pioneer houses, granaries, a tithing house, barns, irrigation ditches and a few old buildings at Five Points that are still standing; the histories of these structures and the stories of the people who built them help to tell the history and the heritage of the community.
Following is a chronological history of the first twenty years of settlement.
1849-1869: BINGHAM FORT and
THE BEGINNING OF LYNNE PRECINCT
FIRST WHITE SETTLERS
In 1849* Mr. Rice coming from Nauvoo, Illinois, was the first white settler on 2nd Street, settling west of where Bingham’s Fort was later built. Charles Burk of Kirtland, Ohio, was close by, and he was joined in 1850 by his father John Burk. Charles Burk came to Utah in 1847 from Nauvoo, Illinois, with Brigham Young in the exodus from America. Mr. Burk served in Orson Pratt’s advance company that went before Brigham Young to find the route across the mountains into the valley. By 1849 he was living north of the Ogden River on pristine frontier land with only a dozen or so other families scattered about.
At first Chief Terikee and Little Soldier set a tone of friendliness to the settlers coming to Weber County, but because of an incident in September 1850 in which Chief Terikee and a white man were killed, the Indians became more troublesome and the white man more uneasy. To help secure the land, President Young sent more emigrants up to Weber and gave Lorin Farr permission to build a fort that was known as North Fort and then Farr’s Fort. About fifty families located in this fort during the winter of 1850/1851, and all the people in the new fort contributed to the building of Farr’s flour mill. The mill was near Farr’s Fort on the creek running NW out of the Ogden River. It was a great advantage to Weber and Davis County as the people no longer had to travel forty miles south to Neuff’s Mill to have their wheat ground. The creek was now named Mill Creek.
Mayor Lorin Farr seeing that the new immigrants were taking up choice spots of land at their pleasure, thus throwing the country into confusion, engaged a surveyor in 1850 named William Lemon who began surveying the land north of the Ogden River; this survey was called the Lemon Survey in his honor. Territorial Road (Washington Blvd.) was the center line of measure beginning at today’s 17th Street. The blocks were 1/2 mile wide by 1 mile in length; each block was divided int 16 twenty-acre farms; streets ran potentially every mile north and south and every half mile east and west. This laid the foundation for the grid for the roads still used today. After the survey was done the first deeds for land were granted in 1850. At this time the Rice family moved to Ogden Hole (North Ogden), and the John Burk family remained on West 2nd Street.
In 1849 Weber County was organized into the Weber River Ward. On January 26, 1851, Brigham Young reorganized the Weber River Ward into the Weber Stake of Zion, dividing it into two wards: the North Ward and the South Ward, the Ogden River being the dividing line. South Ward was Ogden City, and North Ward included all the farming land north of the river, about 6 square miles of land with a very sparse population.
Erastus Bingham became the first bishop of the North Ward with Charles Hubbard and Stephen Perry as counselors and Sanford Bingham as the ward clerk. The next week, on February 6, 1851, Ogden City was incorporated. This made it the third incorporated city west of the Missouri River, the first two being San Francisco and Great Salt Lake City.
In the spring of 1851 the Binghams took up about six claims on the Lemon Survey on the south side of a dirt lane that later became 2nd Street, and Bishop Erastus Bingham began to supervise an extension of the Barker Ditch to 2nd Street. This important job of bringing irrigation water to their farms on 2nd Street was completed by the people in 1852 under the supervision of Isaac Newton Goodale. Erastus was 54 years old, and this would be his last and final farm (See Bingham/Stone Farm).
At this time 2nd Street was merely 4th east-west dirt road on the Lemon Survey, but within two years it would be lined with log cabins and known as Bingham Fort Lane, and irrigation ditches would flow on both the south and north sides of the road. It was difficult and challenging to begin to organize and civilize the land from the ground up. Hardly any of these people had experience making roads and irrigation systems, and they had to do these tasks with relatively few resources.
In September 1852 Isaac Newton Goodale and Henry Gibson were chosen as a trustees to build a school on the north side of Bingham’s Lane one half mile west of today’s Washington Blvd. (today’s location of 2nd St. and Lynne School Lane). From the end of October to the end of December Goodale recorded efforts to get logs for the schoolhouse, trips to the sawmill, and the making of a door, frames and trusses. He even worked on the schoolhouse Christmas day and all the rest of the week to complete the new log school on December 31, 1853, just in time for a New Year’s dance celebration.
The dance commenced at 3 o’clock in the afternoon and went to midnight. The next day Goodale tried to get signers for the subscription school. People who sent their children to school were expected to pay a fee, but it was difficult to collect since money was scarce.  Widow Gheen and Amanda Snow Bingham, wife of Willard, were the first schoolteachers. Slab benches served as seats. The school was known as the Bingham School. Within a year of rapid growth the fort became so crowded that a second school commenced in the cabin of Widow Gheen.
Luman Shurtleff of Nauvoo, Illinois, was part of the exodus from America, arriving in today’s Harrisville in November 1851, a new member of North Ward. He wrote in his history: “We got into the Salt Lake Valley on September 23, 1851, thankful to the God of Heaven that I and my family were in the valley of the Rocky Mountains- – here, where the Prophet Joseph Smith had said thirteen years before (1838) that the Saints would go if the government did not put a stop to the mobbing and the persecution of them.” He claimed 50 acres north of 2nd Street in today’s Harrisville and later built two cabins in Bingham’s Fort.
BINGHAM FORT 1853
Brigham Young arrived in Weber County and gave a speech on Sunday the 30th of July 1853. Because of bloody Indian uprisings in central Utah, Brigham Young advised the settlers to “fort up” as a precaution and for protection. There had been no violence in Weber County between the Indians and the settlers, but the Indians caused a great loss to the settlers by theft and fence burning, etc. After his speech, plans for Mound Fort and Bingham Fort began. Farr’s Fort was already abandoned at this time. Bingham Fort was located by a committee that included Isaac Newton Goodale who recorded the following in his journal:
July 30, 1853-Sunday- We had orders to fort up from B Young
Aug.1,1853- Went over to Ogden City to see about forting up. We agreed to fort up. I was chosen one of the committee for locating the fort, which we located this day.
Aug.19,1853-The brethren commenced to move in.
Aug.20, 1853- We commenced to haul in grain.
Aug. 21, 1853-Sunday the 21 we was moving in. At five o’clock we held a meeting on our business concerning herding and other matters. I was chosen commander of the fort.
Bingham School house, the three Bingham family cabins, the Goodale cabin and the Gates cabin were included within the boundaries of the new fort. These three men, along with Luman Shurtliff, provided much of the talent and leadership for the developing fort community. The strategic west gate and wall were located by the cabins of the leaders, Bingham, Goodale and Gates. There were Indian camps to the west, south and north of the fort but none to the east. So the west gate was built first and the east gate last, completed two years later in June 1855. People began quickly to draw their cabins into the fort for safety.
Luman Shurtleff wrote: First of August 1853 was elected representative by the electors of Weber County to the legislative assembly of Utah.. On the twentith of August I began to draw wheat into Binghams Fort and stack it there. Had taken up two lots (he had two wives) on which to build on the next day, 22nd. I moved in my family and we slept in the open air. The next day we drawed in lumber and built a board shanty and moved into it and drawed wheat and other things most of the week. On Sunday at meeting Bishop Bingham called on me to speak. I did and spoke of the order necessary to be observed by all in order to live in peace with each other. At the close of the meeting Bishop notified the brethern to meet at six o’clock to enter into arrangements for our own defense and safety..
… In the evening we had a hard shower of rain which went through the roof of our shanty and wet us and our things through. I went to work and drawed Altamira’s house (“a log house hewed inside and out” in Harrisville) and put it up on the third of Sept.(in Binghams fort) I moved her and family into it, and between that and another house was a space of about six feet. This I covered over and my wife Melissa and three of my girls, [they] took up their abode therein until we could secure our crops and move the other house.
About the middle of the month I had business to Salt Lake City and when I returned on the 16th I found Altamira, just confined, had a fine daughter, both doing well. The last day of this month I moved my family into the other house… (“to draw the house” means to put it on skids and pull it with horses from one location to another) [3b]
To provide water for people and animals Isaac Newton Goodale changed the course of the Barker Ditch a little bit so that it ran adjacent to the south wall of the fort; this slight diversion in the course of the ditch clearly identifies today the location of the 1853 south wall of the fort. Goodale also surveyed a new section of the Barker Ditch next to the north wall of the fort. Eventually the name of the Barker Ditch changed to the Bingham Fort Ditch; it is still in use today is called the Lower Lynne Ditch.
The walls of the fort were made with “mud-wattle” that filled a form built with stakes and woven willows. The wall was about 12 feet high, 8 feet wide at the rocky base and 3 feet wide at the top, wide enough for a man to walk on. Thomas Richardson said:
“The walls were made of mud. We did not have lumber to put up to hold the mud, so we placed upright poles, tapering from about eight feet at the bottom to about three feet at the top. We set stakes between the poles and wove willows in like a willow fence, then filled the space with mud.We made a ditch nearby to run water down to wet the mud. When wet, we threw it in with shovels, spades or anything we had. We built the willow forms as the wall went up. It was about twelve feet high.” 
In September of 1853 while building the fort walls, one of the Goodale’s young sons died. Another son was born in October, lived 11 days and also died. Isaac Newton Goodale buried the babies next to each other and wrote in his journal on 14 Oct. 1853:
“..These days are deep affliction to me; why it is so I cannot tell. The rest of the day I stayed round about home. I feel that all is right. The Lord gives and the Lord takes away. He shall be praised for all His goodness to me.” .
In October of 1853 Luman Shurtleff and his wife Melissa attended conference in Salt Lake City and “had much first rate instruction, enjoyed ourselves as well and returned home on the tenth and found all well. The next Sunday at meeting I was called on to preach and spoke of the necessity of refraining from using profane and unnecessary language and other evils. After meeting I rebaptised a man and his wife and reconfirmed them and preached in the evening. The next Sunday I preached at North Ogden and instructed the people to move into the fort and honor their president by coming to meeting and obeying his council in all things.”
In the 1850s there were six pioneer forts in Ogden and twenty-one forts on the Wasatch Front. Bingham Fort was distinguished from all the other forts by its very large population, between 500 and 600 settlers, sufficient to make their own settlement and appear on maps for many years.
The people at Bingham Fort enjoyed their new community, and in the fall of 1853 the residents urged Luman Shurtleff to present a petition to separate Bingham Fort from the Ogden City charter as they were not satisfied to pay heavy taxes to build Ogden City and also build the fort themselves without assistance. Mr. Shurtleff wrote:
“… This fort was in the limits of Ogden City and most the land surrounding the fort was farming land, and as we thought a much better place for a city than Ogden City, and as our farms were nearby, we felt anxious to build up that place. There was plenty of gravelly dry land for a city and surrounded with meadow pasture and plow land…. .. After we had been in session a few days I gave notice that I should present a petition before this honorable body praying for the lessening of the charter of Ogden City to two miles square on the next Monday morning. When the day came I presented the petition which was read and laid on the table to come up in its order. It came up in due time, but was lost… We then presented a petition from the citizens of Box Elder and Willow Creek to divide Weber County at the warms springs near the point of the mountain. On this we had a hard struggle, but lost by a small number of votes. On the day before Christmas we adjourned until the second day in January .
.. On arriving at Bingham Fort I found all well and glad to see me, and I was glad to learn that they were getting along well as I found them. . . I had a good time through [Christmas] holidays. Attended two parties [dances] with my wives and family at which I presided.. .”
By 1854 the fort expanded to the east to an area of 60 x 120 rods because of the increasing numbers of people arriving at the fort. In February 1854 Frederick A. Miller of New York, age 16, arrived at the fort from Salt Lake City. His mother was a widow, and Frederick had cut wood and built fires to pay his tuition at school in Salt Lake, in addition to working all summer. He was looking for work in Weber County, and Luman Shurtliff hired him in the summers of 1854 and 1855 for ten dollars per month. Frederick tended his farm and herded, and after working for two summers he was disappointed to not get the cash but received instead a pair of three-year old steers. .
In December 1854 Wilford Woodruff visited and preached to the people. He reported to the Deseret News that the fort contained 732 inhabitants who had raised an excellent crop that season (Deseret News 4:157).
THE INDIANS JOINED THE SETTLERS IN THE FORTS in 1854
The Shoshoni Indians, now led by Chief Little Soldier, were also known as “Weber Utes”, and they had good relations with the settlers for the most part. Because the white man had taken their land, the Indians felt that they had a right to help themselves to the white man’s food and animals. The settlers tried to keep the peace, readily acknowledged that the land belonged to the Indians first and did not try to stop the Indians from camping near by along Mill Creek and in the meadows and pastures of their farms. However, even after the forts were built in Weber County, the problems with petty theft, killing cattle, stealing produce and burning fences continued.
In September 1854 Brigham Young came to visit the Indians in Weber County. He distributed presents and urged them to settle down like the white man and cultivate the land so they could have something to eat and feed their families in a self sufficient way. The Indians seemed to feel good about the meeting. But after Governor Young returned to Salt Lake City, the Indians refused to be instructed by the white man and being short of food, they continued to act like beggars and parasites. It would be 20 more years before Little Soldier and the Shoshoni Indians would desire to become farmers.
There were more indications of pending trouble with with the Indians, and in November an order came from Salt Lake City to Major David Moore to disarm Chief Little Soldier and his band and to distribute them among the families in Weber County where they were best able to feed and clothe them for the winter. In Ogden Major Moore and James S. Brown asked the Indians to disarm and to pitch their tents with the white men and share the chores and food. After much negotiating the Indians reluctantly complied. James S. Brown went through the crowd of Indians and took every weapon with his own hands. An Indian who disliked the idea leaped on a horse and galloped to an Indian camp in the center of Bingham Fort. Jame S. Brown followed him quickly. Just as the Indian boy reached the camp, Brown entered the east gate shouting to the people:
“To arms! To arms! Turn out every man, and help disarm the Indians!” Men turned out quickly and surrounded the camp. Brown continued: “I succeeded in reaching the west gate just in time to wheel and grab a big Ute’s gun as he was trying to pass me. He held to it firmly, and [we] both struggled with a death-like grip. We looked each other squarely in the eyes, with a determined expression. At last his eyes dropped, and his gun was in my possession. He was full of wrath and a desire for vengence. I found him to be one of the strongest men I had ever grappled with anywhere.
I next turned to the camp and disarmed all the Indians in it, placed their weapons under guard and sent them to Ogden, then vainly tried to talk the red men into reconciliation… Major David Moore and James S. Brown tried to pacify the Indians, but they were stubborn and sullen. At last the chief’s brother said,
“Here are my wife, my children, my horses and everything that I have. Take it all and keep it, only give me back my gun and let me go free. I will cast all the rest away. There is my child,” pointing to a three year old, “take it.”…
This spirit was but a reflex of that which animated the whole band; “for,” said they, “we are only squaws now. We cannot hunt or defend our families. We are not anybody now.” But finally, though very sullenly, they went home with the whites and pitched their tents in the back yards. To us it did seem hard to have them feel so bad, but they had no means of support for the winter, and citizens could not afford to have their stock killed and their fences burned, and it was the better policy to feed the Indians and have them under control. They could husk corn, chop wood, help do the chores, and be more comfortable than if left to roam; but for all that, they were deprived of that liberty to which they and their fathers before them had been accustomed; therefore they felt it most keenly. As I was the only white man who could talk much with them, I was kept pretty busy laboring with them.
In the evening of December 3rd the Indians had a letter from Governor Young. I read and interpreted it to them. Then for the first time they seemed reconciled to their situation. Their chief (Little Soldier) was filled with the spirit of approval of the course that had been taken with them, and he preached it long and strong. After that, the Indians and the citizens got along very well together, and I continued teaching and preaching to the former.”
December 5th I took up school and taught the Indian language, or rather the Shoshone dialect. I had about thirty male adults attending. Brother George W. Hill, who afterwards became the noted Shoshone interpreter in Weber County, was one of them.
The winter passed and the Indians worked successfully with the settlers to earn their food and clothes. James S. Brown continued teaching the whites and preaching to the Indians until spring. When the spring of 1855 arrived, the Shoshones were given back their arms, and they bolted out of Bingham Fort, very glad to have their guns and resume hunting.
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE BURK FAMILY?
John Burk, one of the first settlers on 2nd Street, died in June 1853 and was described by Isaac Newton Goodale as “a good man beloved by all”. After his death his wife, Keziah Van Benthuysen Rollins, was known as Widow Burk and was recorded as such on the 1919 Vincy Barker map of Bingham’s Fort (scroll down to BARKER MAP below).
In August 1853 Isaac Newton Goodale worked for Widow Burk cutting her wheat.
In December 1853 he moved Sister Burk’s cabin into the fort and located it east of the three Bingham family cabins.
A year later, in December 1854, while living in the fort amid Indian problems and treaties, Isaac Newton Goodale wrote that he “went to the marrying of Edwin Bingham” to Phobe Burk, daughter of John and Keziah Van Benthuysen Rollins Burk. Widow Burk was looked after and cared for by Edwin Bingham for the rest of her life. She is also remembered as the mother of Elizabeth and Caroline Rollins who rescued pages of the Book of Commandments in 1833 when the mob destroyed William W. Phelps printing press in Missouri[8a].
In 1854 Luman Shurtleff and others began taking lessons in the Bingham schoolhouse to learn the Deseret alphabet which Brigham Young promoted for cultural exclusiveness and also as an easy phonetic way for non-English speaking converts and unlettered folk to learn to write English. It was a phonetic alphabet based on a form of European shorthand.
Shurtleff wrote: “About this time a man came into our fort and took up a school in which the Deseret alphabet was taught. I attended and learned so far that I could partially read and write after that order.. To practice [it] I kept my journal in that alphabet about five months beginning August 13, 1854. The practice of it died away and like others I stopped writing it and have forgotten all about it and cannot read a word of it and have lost five months of my journal.”
The experiment with the Deseret alphabet was not formally abandoned until 1869.
BREAK UP THE FORT & BUILD UP OGDEN 1855
In 1855 when the trouble with the Indians had subsided, the church leaders from Salt Lake City began to urge the large number of people in Bingham’s Fort to move into Ogden to build it up as the center of Weber County. Bingham Fort had become quite a town and was substantially larger than Ogden Fort. It was Brigham Young’s intention for Ogden to become the center of Weber County. Luman Shurtleff recorded his lively conversation with Heber C. Kimball about moving to Ogden:
“Brother Heber C. Kimball was quite talkative and asked me where I lived and I told him in Bingham’s Fort. He said What are you doing there? What office do you hold in Weber County? Are you not a president over all the Seventies in Weber County?
I told him I was then he said, Why are you living in Bingham’s Fort? Why don’t you live in Ogden City? You know you have no business to live in Bingham’s Fort.
I told him I did not know but I might as well live in the fort as any other place.
No said he. You know better. Ogden City must be built up and you must move there. You go home, call the Seventies together and scold them until they will sell out and move into Ogden City. This is but a small part of what he said concerning moving into Ogden…”
On the 11th of June 1855 Luman Shurtleff was appointed prosecuting attorney for Weber County. The next day Brigham Young and company came back from the north and held a meeting in Bingham’s Fort and urged the large number of people there to move to Ogden City.
At that time many were eager to finish building the fort instead of leaving it. After almost two years of construction, the fort walls were almost completed. Isaac Newton Goodale recorded working on the completion of the east gates for the first twenty days of June, and on June 20th the settlers “raised the gates” and completed the structure of Bingham’s Fort.
Gwendolyn W. Shaw wrote that the fort had grown very rapidly and a great many people had gathered there until the place had become quite a town.
On June 24th the people attended a special conference in Ogden City where Brigham Young again advised the people to “break up” the Bingham’s Fort settlement and move to Ogden. President Young said he considered that Bingham’s Fort was not a good site for a large city and logically never would be. He also stated that if the settlement continued to grow as fast as it had done, it would soon be a large city and that it was his plan to build Ogden first. Isaac Newton Goodale recorded succinctly: “President Young preached. Our Fort was commanded to move into Ogden City.”
In the summer of that year many people moved out of Bingham’s Fort, many remained, and some new people continued coming. Luman Shurliff was among those that remained. Erastus Bingham took up a lot in Ogden, but retained his farm and a second home on 2nd Street where he later retired. Isaac Newton Goodale also took up a lot in Ogden.
Concerning church affairs, a presiding elder, Thomas Richardson, was left in charge in the fort district under the direction of traveling Bishop Bingham.
As people began taking up lots in Ogden City there was a heavy demand for water to maintain livestock and gardens, and there was no water on the Ogden bench. This was a stark contrast to Bingham’s Fort that had irrigation ditches on both sides of 2nd Street and was sprinkled with many natural springs. In September of 1855 Brigham Young appointed Isaac Newton Goodale to construct the Ogden Bench Canal. If the people were going to build up Ogden, it was essential to have a canal on the bench. Taking water from the mouth of Ogden Canyon uphill to the bench was no small engineering feat. When it was finished it was considered a miracle in construction, ran two miles and cost $22,000.
“At first this canal traversed only a part of the Ogden City Bench area as that was all that was well inhabited. Later it was run the entire length of the city and served the people who planted gardens in their lots. It is said the engineering work ….. was so accurate that there was but a five foot fall between the head of the canal and its termination…”( For details see Goodale Drive, Isaac Newton Court). 
BINGHAM’S FORT – HARD WINTER OF 1855-56
W. R. R. Stowell of New York arrived in Bingham’s Fort in June 1855 where he had many friends and relatives. He considered his residence there as temporary and took a town lot in Ogden to improve as he had opportunity. He also filed claim for 40 acres in Slaterville. In October of 1855 Brother Stowell married a third wife, Sophronia Kelly of Bingham’s Fort, driving to Salt Lake City for the marriage to be performed by Brigham Young. 
In the fall of 1855 Chauncy W. West arrived in the Bingham’s Fort settlement having returned from a mission to India. In November he was appointed “presiding bishop of Weber County”, and in the spring he moved to Ogden. The collection and management of the tithing of all of the wards of Weber County was consolidated in one office, and the Presiding Bishop was in charge of receiving and distributing it where it was needed. Before the building of regular mercantile stores, the tithing office was the only means of exchange of commodities. 
Pleasant Green Taylor left on a mission to Fort Lemhi in Idaho, and Frederick. A. Miller tended his farm in the winter of 1855-56. He stayed at Little Mountain near the lake shore herding cattle for Taylor, but most of the cattle starved to death during this season that came to be known as the Hard Winter. Miller, age 17, noted that “provisions and clothing of all kinds was very scarce, and I had very few clothes to wear and not much to eat.”
1855 also became the memorable year in Weber County in which great swarms of crickets and grasshoppers settled on the crops in the summer and hardly anything was raised for men or beasts. Brother Stowell, on account of the lateness of the season when he arrived at Bingham’s Fort, did not attempt to farm but assisted others with their small harvests and cut considerable wild hay to feed his animal in the coming winter. Snow fell early from one to two feet deep and the winter continued severely cold until the 21st of March, when the winter so moderated as to bring on a rapid thaw. This produced so much water that the country might be said to “be afloat”.
The snow of 1855-56 was too deep for the cattle to find grass on the range. The limited amount of hay on hand was soon exhausted. Oxen, cows, horses and wolves died of starvation or other ailments. There were several mercantile houses in the fort that began trading in the hides of the dead animals. Charles Middleton estimated that enough cattle perished that winter to stretch from Ogden to the Great Salt Lake, could they have been laid end to end.
In the autumn of 1855 W. R. R. Stowell had 19 head of animal and by spring of 1856 he had only 6. With these calamities the people in Bingham’s Fort were much reduced in circumstances. For want of animals to haul wood, the inhabitants of the fort were under the necessity of carry small willows which grew near the settlement to replenish their fires. These willows afforded but little warmth and the people suffered much discomfort during the long and severe winter.
Very discouraging circumstances followed this Hard Winter, a scarcity of food and loss of stock animals. Many people survived the following spring and summer by digging segos and pigweeds and eating bran bread to keep their bodies and souls together until the next harvest. The privations were borne with fortitude and patient resignation, the people dividing equally any and all provisions which happened to exist among them.
By 1855 and 56 the fort was a gathering place instead of a fort for protection. Families continued to come to the fort, such as the family of the newly widowed Marie Goudin Stalle (Staley), who arrived from Italy in the fall of 1856, and built a crude dugout in which to spend the winter while deciding where to live.
In 1919 Vincy R. Barker recorded a map of the fort inhabitants from the memory of William Grow. The residents that Grow remembered were those who lived there many years in cabins for at least three years or longer. There were many additional people who lived in the fort for shorter lengths of time that are not recorded on this map. The south side of 2nd Street between Wall Ave. and Century Drive was once lined with nineteen or more log cabins [21a].
MOLASSES MILL and SUGAR CANE
Sam Gates built a molasses mill located near today’s intersection of 2nd St. and Wall Ave. Beets and cornstalks were first used to make molasses, and by the late 1850s the settlers grew sugar cane. When there was no sugar cane in season, the water to the mill was turned off. Some of the children of the fort discovered a broken spot in the rim of the wheel where they could crouch, hold the spokes and revolve swiftly for amusement.
BINGHAM FORT DISTRICT 1856
In 1856 after much of the fort population dispersed, about 25 families remained on a two mile stretch of 2nd Street from Territorial Road (Washington Blvd.) westward to Perry’s Lane (1200 West). There were also three or more farms east of Washington Blvd. These families became part of the new civil Bingham Fort District, which also included the colonies that later became Slaterville, Harrisville and Marriottsville. People were so scattered that it was necessary to civilly organize them at that time into a large district. 
Bishop Bingham moved into Ogden and served there as bishop of the Ogden First Ward and traveling bishop to Slaterville/2nd Street where Thomas Richardson was made The Presiding Elder. 
MORMON REFORMATION 1856-57
After the dire circumstances of the Hard Winter, many blessings were needed. A major event, known as the Mormon Reformation occurred the next winter. This movement was begun by the forceful preaching of Jedediah Grant, a counselor in the Mormon First Presidency, and was followed up in local areas with speeches and calls to repentance. Robert E. Baird and Isaac Newton Goodale took a prominent part in carving out the work of Reformation on 2nd Street under the direction of Luman Shurtleff, with a view to get the Saints to repent of their sins, their shortcomings and follies and to live lives of virtue and integrity before the Lord so that his blessing, prosperity, and peace might be more abundantly manifest among the people of Zion. They were designated to query or “catechize” each member with probing questions that underlined church activity and faithfulness. Each person was to confess his sins in relation to the question asked and then be rebaptized in a renewal of their covenants. The “catechism” of 27 questions was recorded by Luman Shurtleff and can be read in the History of the Lynne Ward.
A little over 200 people in the Bingham Fort District were catechized during January and February of 1857. Early in the spring most of the people of 2nd Street were rebaptized in Mill Creek.  The blessings and peace and prosperity that were sought came about in an ironic turn of events over the next two years.
10th ANNIVERSARY – “PIONEER DAY”, AND THE UTAH WAR, 1857-1858
On July 24, 1857, on the 10th anniversary of the arrival of the Saints into the valley and during their pioneer day celebration in Big Cottonwood Canyon, messengers came with the alarming news that the U.S. Army was on its way to Utah to put down the alleged Mormon rebellion against the Union. The settlers were shocked and feared the prospect of being driven unjustly from their homes again as they were in Missouri and Illinois.
Erastus Bingham and family left the celebration and returned at once to Ogden. Chauncey W. West had just received from Governor Young the commission of colonel in the Weber Miltia, and in March the following year, he was promoted to brigadier-general in the Nauvoo Legion (Utah Militia).
The Lynne Ward history recorded:
“All the able bodied men were mustered into service in the militia under Chauncey W. West to assist in watching the invading forces ordered by the general government against the Mormons. The U. S. Army had reached Ham’s Fork in the vicinity of Fort Bridger. The determined defensive position taken by our militia and by means of large scouting parties … was to harass, discourage and confuse, and to induce the army to camp for winter in the locality of Fort Bridger… Maj. Jos. Taylor and Capt. W.R.R. Stowell were taken prisoners by their enemies.” 
Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston led the federal troops.
One afternoon on 2nd Street, during this tense period of uncertainty about their homes, there was a bad electrical storm. Mary Cruse Stone was hurrying to their cabin (on today’s Lynne School Lane) to get out of the storm, and “she was knocked down by lightning just as she was near the door. Her youngest child, James, then a small boy, was running beside her holding on to her skirt. She was knocked unconscious, and the little fellow said the soldiers had shot his mother with a cannon. The force of it knocked him down too, but he was not unconscious. A ball of fire seemingly as large as a base ball, passed on into the cabin and made its exit up through the roof near the fireplace, tearing a great hole in the roof. It was around the time of Johnston’s army, and the boy cried thinking that his mother had been killed by the soldiers. ..” [later she revived and was carried into the cabin]
In the fall of 1857 while others were in preparatory military training, or “sword exercises” as Isaac Newton Goodale described it, Frederick A. Miller, age 19, was called to go on a mission to Fort Lemhi in the eastern part of what is now Idaho “to educate the Indians and teach them the Gospel”. He left on October 3rd and arrived there October 27th. 
In the spring of 1858, Brigham Young decided to abandon or threaten to abandon the northern Utah settlements instead of fighting. Should the army manage to enter the Salt Lake Valley, it would find the homes laid waste by fire and the people gone. The army’s victory would be without significance. The Lynne Ward history reads:
“The people being in harmony with the general spirit and feeling of the whole church, took up their line of march for the southern country leaving a detail of men to guard the homes and property or to destroy it by the lighted torch in the event of the hostile forces gaining the ascendancy. Never was a people more determined to defend their rights and their religion against a crusade inaugurated by the very power and authority which should have extended protection. Nay more, who should have rendered them aid and sympathy in their undertakings to convert the sterile desert wastes of these mountain regions into cultivated fields and farms and make happy homes for themselves and families, surrounded for neighbors by the hostile savage of the plains, 1000 miles from any other portion of those cultivated and civilized inhabitants.” 
Thomas Bingham, Erastus Bingham Jr. and Isaac Newton Goodale were the men left on 2nd Street under the command of Col. David Moore, with “instructions to burn the houses and crops if worst came to worst and the Saints definitely must seek a new homeland.”
On the 28th of March Frederick A. Miller left Fort Lemhi driving Lewis Shurtliff and his wife with him as they had no team. On April 11, 1858 Miller arrived in Ogden and found it a “dreary looking place as the inhabitants had moved from their homes to the southern part of the Territory.” He too went south and found his mother living in Springville.
Moses and Nancy Tracy and his family packed up with the Saints and moved south for safety in spite of his poor health. They got as far as Payson, about 100 miles away, and Moses could go no further. See history of the Tracy family for more details.
After months of standoff and evacuation the Mormons and the U. S. government worked out their differences and the “Utah War” was brought to an end. Homes were still intact and The residents of 2nd Street and the people of Weber County returned gratefully to their homes. ” A fair crop was gathered considering the circumstances, the home guard in charge having performed faithfully their duty toward the people.” Johnston’s army settled in Camp Floyd, in a valley 50 miles SW of Salt Lake City and remained there until 1861.
With the end of the Utah War came a new governor, Alfred Cumming, the presence of federal troops, and outsiders bringing new businesses to the territory. In some ways the “Utah War” was a God-send as the settlers were able to buy cheap the soldier’s discarded clothing, such as coats and suits, and the stationary army purchased supplies from the settlers. This, of course, put more money in circulation.[31a]
After the Utah War was over Thomas Richardson was called to preside as (branch) president in 1858 over Pioneer Road and 2nd Street area. Robert E. Baird, William B. Hutchens and John Laird acted as local teachers on 2nd Street.
Three families in the Bingham Fort District in the Marriott area requested permission from Governor Cumming to leave Utah Territory in April 1858, and permission was granted; two of the families were unhappy with harsh frontier life and the other objected to the theocratic government (See Melling Way for more details). 
Fanny Romrell, daughter of Francis Romrell on 2nd Street, married a federal soldier from Johnston’s army named Maurice Ducloux in 1859. The Romrells were from the Isle of Jersey and spoke both French and English, and Ducloux was a Frenchman from Alabama. In 1860 Fanny and Maurice moved back to Alabama. It would be fourteen years before she would return.
ONE CABIN THAT SAW THE PASSAGE OF THE EVENTS OF THE 1850s STILL STANDS: Log cabin of Erastus Bingham located today in Lagoon’s Pioneer Village, Farmington, Utah.
1860s: INDIANS, HOME BUILDING and ADVENT of RAILROAD
“LYNNE 5th” DISTRICT OF THE CHURCH
In 1863 2nd Street was ecclesiastically organized into the 5th Ecclesiastical District of the LDS Church, called Lynne 5th or Lynne District for short. Lynne was the name of the postal route through the Bingham Fort Settlement. Robert E. Baird from Ireland was branch president with Daniel F. Thomas from Wales and James Field as counselors. All the presidency lived in today’s area of 2nd Street and 1000 West.
At this time there was little separation between the branch and civil government. In 1864 Robert E. Baird was appointed the first Justice of the Peace and Edward Stone constable.
Emigrants continued to come into Weber County, and Frederick A. Miller, age 23, was called to help them across the high plains. William Hutchens donated a fine pair of oxen named Buck and Brin to the Church to help bring the immigrants across the plains. In April of 1861 Frederick Miller started for Omaha “in Joseph Horn’s company after people who were not able to bring themselves to Utah. In crossing the plains, I herded the cattle at night and had a good time and plenty of work. It was amusing to see the emigrants gathering buffalo chips for fuel and helping to take care of the cattle. This was all new to them. On our way home we met the U.S. Army which had been called back from Utah on account of the rebellion in the Southern States.” Many new emigrants were attracted to the rich soil of the Bingham Fort Settlement.
2nd SCHOOLHOUSE NAMED MILL CREEK SCHOOL, 1863
The Bingham School was used for ten years, from 1853 to 1863. By this time the increased population required a larger school. The new Mill Creek schoolhouse was made of logs and had a large rock fireplace and chimney. It was located one mile west of Five Points on the corner of Mill Creek Lane and 2nd Street in 1863. Mill Creek Lane ran from 2nd Street to 12th Street and was located where today’s railroad tracks run. After the tracks were laid Mill Creek Lane was pushed to the west of the tracks.
Following are two interesting stories that happened at the Mill Creek School in the 1860s, an amusing snake story and a serious Indian encounter.
FIRST STORY: SNAKE IN THE MILL CREEK SCHOOLHOUSE
In 1864 Mrs. Amanda Bingham was the teacher, and on a chilly fall day she made the first fire of the season in the fireplace. When the fire began burning brightly, “one of the smaller boys called out excitedly, “Look at that big snake.” Startled, the children looked up and saw a huge bull snake crawling out of a hole between the rocks of the hearth in front of the fireplace. The teacher screamed and jumped on to her desk; the little girls began to cry and shrink as far away from the fireplace as possible, but the boys seemed quite unconcerned. However, all watched breathlessly as the snake wriggled out of its confining quarters. It must have been difficult because.. it raised its head, as though straining all its might to pull the rest of its body out of the hole, and the farther it got out, the higher it raised itself in the air until it seemed unbelievably large and fearsome looking. .. and there were small legs on the snake’s belly. Finally it dropped to the floor and wriggled loose. After it was all out, it lay still for a moment. It seemed quite dumb and not at all alert. One of the boys said, “That is just a bull snake; it won’t hurt anyone, it eats frogs.” Then Mrs. Bingham called to one of the boys to open the door so the snake could go outside. As soon as it left the room, the boy slammed the door shut. .. The snake was six or eight feet long.”
SECOND STORY: DRAMA BETWEEN THE INDIANS AND THE CHILDREN C. 1864
Another dramatic incident occurred in the Mill Creek Schoolhouse in about 1864 between the children and the Indians who came begging from the children at lunch time.
The Indian women were always begging from the settlers and when they were camped in the meadows and school was in session the women used to come to the schoolhouse at noon and beg the children’s lunches. It wasn’t very often that Mary Hutchens took her lunch when she went to school; she preferred to run home and back.
One day as she neared the schoolhouse for the afternoon’s session, she saw a crowd of Indians at the schoolhouse, some on horseback, and they all seemed to be in a rather serious mood, as they were talking and gesticulating. Mary had always been told that if she minded her business, no harm would come to her, and as she had been use to Indians all her life, she had no fear in approaching the crowd. Then too, she saw her teacher Mrs. (Amanda) Bingham coming down the street, so she figured she would be safe.
They arrived about the same time. Mary heard Mrs. Bingham ask what was the trouble, and the Indian chiefs closed about her and commenced talking excitedly. They conversed together in the Indian language for quite a while. Mary turned to one of the school girls and said, “What is the matter?”
The little girl answered that during the noon hour quite a number of the squaws had come begging for the children’s lunches and that a number of them had little nursing babies and that the boys made fun of the squaws for exposing their breasts so the squaws went away.
Mary looked about her. The teacher was talking very earnestly to the Indian chiefs, and they apparently were becoming quieter. She noticed too that a lot of the children were already in the schoolhouse. Then Mrs. Bingham called the children to gather together into the schoolroom and when they got inside they found a number already there, also two or three Indians; and following closely on the heels of the children from outside, came the rest of the Indians, until the room was soon crowded to capacity.
Then the teacher called for order and told the children that the Indians had come to report that some of the boys had insulted their squaws by making fun of them. She asked what boys were guilty of the offense and some owned up to the deed; others had to be named, but at least a half dozen were designated as being parties to the offense. They were the larger boys from 11 to 12 years of age and one was her boy.
Then she said that the Indians were demanding the boys so they could punish them as they felt they deserved, but that she had finally prevailed on their letting her do the whipping, though they would superintend the punishment and decide when each boy had had enough.
Then she asked if the boys would rather she did the whipping or turn them over to the Indians. Of course the boys agreed that it was preferable for her to whip them. Then she had them go out and bring in three green willows each. She braided three together and whipped each boy with a new braided willow whip until the Indians in charge agreed that the culprit had been punished enough; then she took another boy and punished him. It took a long time and the teacher appeared exhausted when it was finished. The boys were crying badly, so were the smaller girls. It was a tense and critical time, and it frightened one to hear the falling of the whip, the outcries of the boys and the grunts of satisfaction from the Indians at the punishment.
Then the Indians filed out of the schoolroom after telling the teacher things had been settled to their satisfaction, and as they left the school ground on their ponies they whooped in a bloodcurdling manner and caused quite a commotion.
Then the teacher very seriously addressed the pupils – she told them how very near they had come to being seriously hurt by the Indians, and that if the boys had been delivered into their hands there was no telling what might have happened to them, and the result would have been that all of the settlers in the valley might have suffered; that the Indians were wild and primitive and they could not understand that the boy’s comments had been but a crude joke. She explained that Brigham Young had made a treaty with the Indians that the white people would live at peace with them; and that the Indians had been more honorable than the boys in this instance because they had not taken the boys while she was away but had waited until she had come before taking action; that the children must learn to respect the rights of the Indians as the country really belonged to them first; and that the white people were the interlopers and should therefore always treat the Indians with respect, as there were just a handful of white people and many thousands of Indians in the valley.
The boys were very much subdued, and they listened intently, as did the rest of the children, and as it was impossible to settle down to studying after the awful incident, the teacher dismissed the school and the children went home. Mary told her father about it and he agreed with Mrs. Bingham in everything she had said and done, and said she had averted a very serous catastrophe by punishing the boys and settling the dispute to the satisfaction of the Indians then and there. He warned the children again not to go into the Indian camps but to keep to the roadways when they left home and to be courteous to the Indians always.
Because of the proximity of the school to Mill Creek, the children often swam in the swimming hole at recess in segregated groups during the 1860s and the 1870s. When it was the girls turn to swim, they wore their petticoats, afterwards hanging them on a bush to dry.
Over the following years kids continued to swim in the Mill Creek swimming hole, even until the 1950s; it was located east of the RR bridge over Mill Creek near the end of 7th St; photo below shows Yvona Clayton and Macel Stone at the Mill Creek swimming hole in 1927.
INDIAN CAMPS ON BOTH SIDES OF 2ND STREET IN THE 1860S
Many of the migratory Indians set up camps in the meadows of 2nd Street along Mill Creek, next to the ponds, the wetlands or the irrigation ditches. One spring day in about 1865 William and Eliza Hutchens left two daughters at home in the area of today’s 2nd and 1000 West while they went to Ogden. While they were gone the Indians began migrating and filled Washington Ave and 2nd Street as they sought places for their camps. All day the roads were crowded with Indians moving west and settling in the meadows.
The girls were afraid that the Indians would see them alone and hid in the sheep pen. But the Indians took no notice of the children. “Their parents were delayed getting home because the road was so crowded with Indians.”
Several tribes would camp in the meadows around 2nd Street at the same time. Mary Hutchens was a child but could tell the chiefs apart by the way that they wore their hair. Indian Jack had the longest hair of any of the chiefs. He wore his hair parted in the middle with beads strung into the braids that rattled as he walked. No other man of his tribe dared to dress his hair like the chief except his own sons.
Little Soldier parted his hair in the middle, crossed the braids in the back and then brought them over his shoulder. No one except his sons could wear their hair that way.[37a]
While living at 2nd and 1000 West the Hutchens children like to sleep outside on warm nights on the roof of their shed, making their bed by laying their blankets in the clean straw on the roof. On hot nights their parents would sleep there too. Sometimes on nights like these, when the Indians camped by Mill Creek, they could lay here quietly and watch the Indians at their camp fires singing or dancing their many ceremonial dances. “Some [dances were] so fierce it made them shiver and others so majestic and solemn that it made one want to weep. Then others were just the opposite – almost enticing them into jumping up and down in merriment too.”[37b]
INDIANS AND ART STONE
It was not uncommon for the Indians to come to the settlers’ houses to visit or to ask for things they needed. But in the 1850s and early 1860s it was not considered safe for the settlers to go casually into the Indian camps. The white children were cautioned to always stay on the roads, be respectful to the Indians and never go into the Indian camps. Of course, there are always exceptions, and the exception to this protocol was Arthur Stone from England who developed a more personal friendship with some of the young Indian bucks.
“Art” was thirteen years old when his parents settled in Bingham’s Fort in 1854. From 2ndStreet he could look into the Indian camps and see young men practicing to be warriors. They would paint their face with different colors of clay, ride bareback and practice horse maneuvers and target shooting, and yell war cries. There were numerous tribes of Indians encamped in the meadows simultaneously and the wicki-ups of the chiefs were decorated with rows and rows of scalps. Art was fascinated.
By the mid 1860s Art was a great favorite with the Indians. On Sunday, when there was never any work in the fields, Art would be surrounded by a group of Indian bucks, and he participated in their games of all kinds. Sometimes it was riding horses, and Art had a wonderful riding horse; the saddle and bridle trappings were ornamented or embroidered beautifully with Indian handwork. He had a wonderful suit of buckskin with leggings, moccasins, etc. to match. Everything he had seemed to be as nice as the greatest chiefs’ sons. The Indians seemed to admire him greatly. His face was painted like the Indian’s faces as he joined them in their games.
Art was a fiddler for dances, and it was not unusual for Indian bucks to come to the Mormon dances. However the bucks never danced with white girls, just with each other or a white boy. But Art took an Indian with him to the dances who was handsomely dressed in white doe-skin, heavily embroidered and fringed. He was a beautiful dancer, and he danced with white girls. The girls liked to dance with that Indian as he could danced as many fancy steps as any of the white boys.
Art Stone built a rock house at 159 West 2nd Street in about 1863.
THE CARDON MILL 1863
At 507 Washington Blvd. (then called Main Street) John (Jean) and Anna Furrer Cardon built a log cabin in c. 1863 and managed a general merchandise store at 503 Washington Blvd. Adjacent to their home they built the first carding mill in Weber County.
They dug a loop on the Bingham Fort ditch to supply power for the mill. John made a water wheel, tables and pickers of native lumber. The iron used in the machinery was brought from the East by ox team. After the mill was completed, John and his wife did all the carding at night after the farm work was finished.
The wool was made into batts or quilts and rolls from which yarn was made. These batts and rolls were held or pinned together with thorns from Hawthorne bushes. Wool was brought to this mill from all over Weber and Cache Counties. It was quite successful, and they operated this mill for about fifteen years.
DOCTORS AND MEDICINE ON THE FRONTIER
Jean Cardon immigrated from Italy and Anna from Switzerland. Anna received medical training in Switzerland practiced medicine in the Bingham Fort District after her arrival in 1857, often setting broken bones and once even sewing on the scalp of an injured youth. Her service was provided without charge because Brigham Young had counseled her many years earlier that her mission was to use her medical knowledge in healing the sick and needy without remuneration and great would be her blessings. She traveled on horseback to visit the sick.
Doctors were only called in emergencies. Midwives usually assisted in home births (see Stone Pond Road for story of home birth), families were knowledgeable in home remedies, and Indians shared their knowledge of herbs and so forth.
“When William Hutchens was cutting wood his ax slipped and cut his foot just between his first and second toes… When his shoe was removed it was an awful looking cut. [Eliza] washed it and got the the blood stopped. Then she covered it with wood ashes and bound it up. The wood ashes were to disinfect it. It healed rapidly and was all right again before very long.”[39a]
One time Eliza Hutchens was sick for a long time and couldn’t regain her strength. Many cures were tried to no avail. Finally the Indian medicine man came and made a remedy from the castors of a dead beaver. Eliza took it everyday, and it wasn’t long before she was fully recovered.[39b]
MR. TAFT AND LYNNE POST OFFICE c. 1864
In 1863 the assistant Ogden postmaster, Walter Thompson, named the postal route on 2nd Street “Lynne” after his native Lynne, Scotland. Three years later, in 1866, the government established a post office in the cabin of Lewis Taft at today’s address of 235 W. 2nd Street; it was known as the Lynne Post Office. 
Mary Hutchens remembered Mr. Taft like this:
“Old Mr. TAft was the postmaster. He was a tall, spare old man coming originally from Vermont. He was very well educated. Only had one son. He was very kind o all the children and the children loved him. On the 4th of July and the 24th he invariably marched with the little boys in the parade, organizing them into groups. He was a natural musician. He could play most anything, and he made his own instruments. At one time he made enough fifes out of willows for a whole group of boys, and he taught them to play so well that he led them in a street parade, and they played the simple tunes then prevalent, all playing together on hand-made fifes.” [40a]
THE BEAUTIFUL VIEW FROM LYNNE & INDIAN CAMPS IN THE DISTANCE
Lynne was a beautiful location with grassy meadows, creeks, springs, and irrigation ditches, but there were not many trees. In the 1860s there were not many trees in the county except cottonwoods by the creeks and rivers, so there was a wide and distant view from 2nd Street northward all the way to the Hot Springs. One house could be viewed at the Hot Springs, and that was the road-house where the stage horses fed. Indian camps could also be seen in the distance. At that time Indian camps extended from the Hot Springs to the Sand Ridge (Roy). Present tree growth now obscures this old view. [40b]
LYNNE PRECINCT 1864
With the growth of the Mormon branch, the school, two mills and a post office, there was now sufficient growth in the settlement of 2nd Street to civilly organize a precinct that was given the same name as the post office: Lynne.
Robert E. Baird, the Mormon branch president, was appointed Justice of the Peace of the new Lynne Precinct in 1864. In the theocratic government of the Utah Territory, Church officials and government or city officers were often the same. If a vote were held, there was generally a single slate of officers prescribed by the local Mormon leaders; these nominations were seldom opposed and were voted for unanimously in a meeting on the eve of the election by the raising of hands. Ed Stone was appointed constable.[40c]
2nd Street was the heart of the new Lynne Precinct with farmhouses on either side of the street fronting farms that extended 20 acres north or south to the outer boundaries of the precinct on today’s North Street and 7th Street. The precinct included a scope of country that was about a mile wide or equal to ten blocks north to south and about three miles wide east to west.[40d]
In the 1860s there were a few small co-operative stores in Ogden, but the people were still largely self sufficient, providing for their own needs. It was a special event when a family acquired a commodity like a clock, a rug or an organ. Before the railroad these exclusive luxuries came to the territory in wagons and sold at a high price.
In the 1860, before the business development at Five Points, there was a little “business hub” on 2nd Street in the old fort that included the school, the post office, Sam Gates’ molasses mill, and Ed Stone’s in-home produce store and later photo gallery. In 1866 William Hutchens established a small saw-mill near the old Bingham School.
Farming flourished in Lynne during the 1860s. Good crops were gathered in this decade, all kinds of produce was in good demand and at high prices in Montana where Montana North mining interests developed. Gold diggings yielded the miners very profitable returns, opening up good markets for all kinds of provisions for the people in northern Utah. Wheat at different periods ranged from $4 to $8 per bushel and flour from $12 to $16 per sack. In the summer of 1864 Frederick A. Miller went with H. V. Shurtliff to Virginia City in Montana with a train of wagons loaded with flour, butter and other articles to sell to the miners.
In the fall and winter of the same year, Miller herded cattle and horses on the Promontory Mountain for the people of Weber County. This was the first herd that had ever been taken there, and it made a fine winter range. The animals came out fat in the spring when he delivered them to their owners.
3RD SCHOOLHOUSE – the ADOBE LYNNE SCHOOL, 1867
In 1867 the people knew that the future railroad tracks would replace Mill Creek Lane, so the Mill Creek school house was no longer in a suitable location. A new school was built on 2nd Street back at the site of the old Bingham schoolhouse. It was much larger than the Mill Creek school and was made of adobe, located a half-mile west of Five Points on today’s NE corner of 2nd and Lynne School Lane. It was built by taxation and served for school, church and all public purposes. This improved building was named Lynne School. “It was an adobe school with one big room. The hats and coats were hung on the walls. It didn’t have a fireplace but a tall iron stove.The room was plastered and whitewashed and had a shingle roof.” The school was the hub of activity for the settlement, and many houses were clustered near by. Mary Maxham built a stylish house next to the school at today’s 214 W. 2nd for her convenience of attending socials and church meetings.(Some accounts say that the school was built in 1866)
Sam Gates’ unmarried daughter, Nancy Jane, was seventeen in July 1868 when she started “keeping school” in the subscription school on 2nd Street with 34 scholars in the “Lynne 10 District”. On September 22, 1868, she recorded in her journal:
“… Went to school, the wind blew a perfect hurricane from the east and the windows of the schoolhouse were all open and every scholar had had a cold, and the wind blew their book leaves back and forth and that made them so cross, and I must admit that I was cross too. I went and saw brother Taft who was one of the Trustees of the school and he said the Schoolhouse ought to be fixed, (and I knew that without his telling me) but they had nothing to fix it with. After school I went to Sister Hutchens and engaged 26 lbs rolls to spin went home and open 2 skeins.
Got up Wednesday morning and spun 1 ½ skeins yarn, went to school, it was the 23rd day of Sept. and rather cold but warmer than the 22, the wind having gone down with the sun the night before. Bros. Taft and Fields visited the school in the forenoon, and said they were satisfied with the proceedings of the school; they praised the Geography class and encouraged them to continue to learn as fast as possible telling them what a blessing it was to understand geography. They made fair promises to have the schoolhouse finished. When school was dismissed for noon they went home promising to come again in a short time and bring the rest of the Trustees with them, and also the President. I went home ate my dinner returned a 1 o’clock p.m. and taught school as usual. Dismissed the school at 4 p.m. went home spent the evening pleasantly…”
Many of her pleasant evenings after school were spent in activities such as visiting with friends, an evening stroll, a peach paring at Mehitable Bingham’s, horse back riding, spinning, and journal writing. She began keeping a journal in September 1868 after reading “a little paper in the Juvenile Instructor edited by George Q. Cannon”. She quit teaching in November and enrolled herself in a ladies boarding school in Ogden to further her own education. Her school mistress there was Olie Wideborg.
DANCES in the SCHOOLHOUSE and HUSKING BEES
Night dances were held weekly in the schoolhouse for the unmarried and sometimes twice a week. Sometimes a number of young bucks would come to the singles’ dances, but never squaws. The dances always ended at dawn.
The young children, eight and nine year olds, had little dances at the school on Saturday afternoons. Someone would fiddle for them and they would dance until the sun went down. A little girl was always escorted to the dance by a little boy; the little boys always took one or more little girls, and these arrangements were made by the parents. After the girls and boys were 12 years old they could go to the night dances and select their own “date”. But in order to escort a girl to a night dance, the boy had ask the girl’s mother for permission. Then the mother told her daughter who was coming to pick her up for the dance.
Monthly dances were held for the married. “On that evening some of the young ladies would take care of the babies, and some of the young men would take charge of the fire or other duties; the married people danced and the young people were expected to just tend the babies and help them with the lunch at midnight.”
Old pioneers danced the English dances like the minuet, especially William Stone of England, Robert E. Baird of Ireland and an old English couple living in the Hutchen’s tent. Younger folks like to step dance. ” Willard Bingham would start to step dance – others would join him until there would be a floor full of dancers. Not many would stay until the end because Turkey in the Straw goes pretty fast.”
Waltzing and quadrilling were also popular.
In the fall a husking-bee might be held at a farmer’s house. One year William Hutchens raised 20 acres of corn and held a husking-bee at his house.
“The married people would come dressed in their everyday clothing, and they would husk corn until they got tired.. Very often someone (unmarried) found a red ear of corn, and the one who found it ran around the circle with someone of the opposite sex in pursuit. If the one who had husked the red ear was caught before he or she was able to circle back to the starting point, the two kissed. Mary thought the unmarried red-corn finders never tried to run very fast, and someone was always getting caught. Many times when a red ear was found, there was so much foolishness and play (among the young unmarried ones) that it would be fifteen or twenty minutes before they settled back down to husking corn…
When the work was finished Eliza served fried cakes, and everyone had a lot to eat. After they finished eating, they danced in the dooryard to the music of fiddle players. Everyone talked and sang and had a good time until daylight. Afterwards, it always took William two or three days to put away the ears of corn that had been husked and tie up the corn fodder for winter use.“
RELIEF SOCIETY 1868
On April 23, 1868, Chauncey W. West organized a combined Female Relief Society for Marriott and Lynne (See History of the Lynne Ward for details)
EXPANDING THE COMMUNITY on EAST SIDE: Miller, Christofferson, Smuin, Harrop
In 1868 Frederick A. Miller acquired 20 acres of land on the east side of Lynne Ward (5th Street east of Washington Blvd.) and moved to his own place with his mother and grandmother. There was a log house with two rooms on the farm. The land was run down and had to be manured before good crops were raised upon it, which kept him busy for a few years.
Brigham Young sent Rasmus Christofferson of Denmark to Lynne and gave him the land for valiant leadership in the Black Hawk war; his land was located at today’s survey from 2nd to 3rd Street and between Washington Blvd. and Adams Ave. There was no water available here, and Rasmus supervised the construction of the Christofferson Ditch in 1868 to irrigate the the east side of Lynne District. His ditch was known as the Christofferson Ditch is now called the Upper Lynne.
The construction of this ditch opened up the east side of Lynne for settlement in 1868 just as the Bingham Fort Ditch (now called the Lower Lynne) opened up the west side of Five Points in 1851. Christofferson served as watermaster of his new ditch for thirteen years. In 1873 the shareholders of the Christofferson Ditch combined with the “Old Irrigation Company of Lynne”, aka the Bingham Fort Ditch shareholders, to regulate together the ditches and business affairs of both ditches. Together these two ditches irrigated 881 acres of land in the Lynne Community.[47c]
George Smuin and his new bride, Eliza Gaisford, settled in the expanding Lynne Community in 1869 and ate onions and potatoes the first year to get by. George was grateful to his family who had enabled him to emigrate from England in 1864 and could not forget their sacrifice. He had worked hard since his arrival to save for their passage. He and his bride continued to work hard and live frugally. George had compassion for other immigrants and went back several times as a teamster to help them finish their journey across the plains on the ox train.
Concerning their sending money to England, Eliza G. Smuin recorded, “This put us back a number of years because we had to make a great sacrifice, but I knew we were blessed for so doing. We worked faithfully to gather and soon had a good home.”
George Smuin secured land on the east side of Lynne, extending from today’s address of 4th Street to 5th Street between Adams Ave. and east to the hill. This property was next to F. A. Miller’s farm. With the new Christofferson ditch, the east side of Lynne now had an appeal to farmers.[47d]
Joseph Harrop and family came from England and gathered to Lynne in 1862 to began a freighting business, hauling Utah flour and produce to mine workers in Montana. By freighting he earned the money to purchase the land on the east side of Main Street between 4th and 5th Street next to Miller and Smuin.
 Editor Milton R. Hunter, Beneath Ben Lomond’s Peak, Publishers Press 1966, Salt Lake City Utah, p. 282, 283; comment from Little Soldier found in article by Scott R. Christensen, Chief Little Soldier, Shoshone Chieftain, Mormon Elder, Pioneer Magazine, Winter 1995, p. 18; James S. Brown, Life of A Pioneer, Geo. Q. Cannon & Sones Co., Printers, Salt Lake City, Utah, p. 348-350. NOTE: Following are two additional descriptions of the Indian trouble of 1853-1854:
Pleasant Green Taylor of Harrisville described the Indian trouble of 1853 and 1854 as follows in his autobiography. He used the words “arrest” and “guard” in his description of the Indians in the fort. These words are more harsh than the words of James S. Brown (above) and Isaac Newton Goodale (below):“1853 – During this season attended to my farm and raised a good crop. In July on account of the hostility of the Indians Pres. Young called upon us to move to certain points and make forts of safety, accordingly I moved my family to what is known as Binghams Fort. At this place I assisted in building a wall of defense. Some 110 families assembled at this place. This being two miles from my farm. We had to be continually on our guard. I used to take my gun with me when I had need to go to my farm. 1854 – This season I also tended my farm and in the winter following was called on to take 8 men and arrest a band of Indians for stealing. We succeeded and brought them to our fort and guarded them during the winter.”
Isaac Newton Goodale recorded the trouble with the Indians in 1854 in these words:Feb. 6, 1854: ..I worked at finding out the value of destruction of property caused by the late Indian difficulties. Sept. 1, 1854 : ½ day was thrashing oats, ½ day was (invited) to a Indian feast. Sept. 3,1854: Sunday. Brigham Young came up to make a treaty with the Indians (and urged them to settle down like the white man) Dec. 1, 1854: This day there was a call for 25 men to go to take a body of Indians which had been killing cattle. We took them and brought them into the Fort and tried to have them live with us. Dec. 3, 1854: Bro. (Wilford) Woodruff preached in the evening (and he brought a letter from Governor Young to the Indians)
[8a] Joyce B. Maw, Ogden Pioneer Forts and the People Who Lived There, 2004, p. 162,163.
 Andrew Jensen, History of the Lynne Ward, p.4; Dorothy Amelda Sherner and Laura Sherner Welker, Mary Elizabeth- Her Stories, p. 58.
 Ibid, p.88.